A new world record wind gust: 253 mph in Australia's Tropical Cyclone Olivia

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 5:34 PM GMT on January 27, 2010

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The 6,288-foot peak of New Hampshire's Mount Washington is a forbidding landscape of wind-swept barren rock, home to some of planet Earth's fiercest winds. As a 5-year old boy, I remember being blown over by a terrific gust of wind on the summit, and rolling out of control towards a dangerous drop-off before a fortuitously-placed rock saved me. Perusing the Guinness Book of World Records as a kid, three iconic world weather records always held a particular mystique and fascination for me: the incredible 136°F (57.8°C) at El Azizia, Libya in 1922, the -128.5°F (-89.2°C) at the "Pole of Cold" in Vostok, Antarctica in 1983, and the amazing 231 mph wind gust (103.3 m/s) recorded in 1934 on the summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire. Well, the legendary winds of Mount Washington have to take second place now, next to the tropical waters of northwest Australia. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has announced that the new world wind speed record at the surface is a 253 mph (113.2 m/s) wind gust measured on Barrow Island, Australia. The gust occurred on April 10, 1996, during passage of the eyewall of Category 4 Tropical Cyclone Olivia.


Figure 1. Instruments coated with rime ice on the summit of Mt. Washington, New Hampshire. Image credit: Mike Theiss.

Tropical Cyclone Olivia
Tropical Cyclone Olivia was a Category 4 storm on the U.S. Saffir-Simpson scale, and generated sustained winds of 145 mph (1-minute average) as it crossed over Barrow Island off the northwest coast of Australia on April 10, 1996. Olivia had a central pressure of 927 mb and an eye 45 miles in diameter at the time, and generated waves 21 meters (69 feet) high offshore. According to Black et al. (1999), the eyewall likely had a tornado-scale mesovortex embedded in it that caused the extreme wind gust of 253 mph. The gust was measured at the standard measuring height of 10 meters above ground, on ground at an elevation of 64 meters (210 feet). A similar mesovortex was encountered by a Hurricane Hunter aircraft in Hurricane Hugo of 1989, and a mesovortex was also believed to be responsible for the 239 mph wind gust measured at 1400 meters by a dropsonde in Hurricane Isabel in 2003. For reference, 200 mph is the threshold for the strongest category of tornado, the EF-5, and any gusts of this strength are capable of causing catastrophic damage.


Figure 2. Visible satellite image of Tropical Cyclone Olivia a few hours before it crossed Barrow Island, Australia, setting a new world-record wind gust of 253 mph. Image credit: Japan Meteorological Agency.


Figure 3. Wind trace taken at Barrow Island, Australia during Tropical Cyclone Olivia. Image credit: Buchan, S.J., P.G. Black, and R.L. Cohen, 1999, "The Impact of Tropical Cyclone Olivia on Australia's Northwest Shelf", paper presented at the 1999 Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, Texas, 3-6 May, 1999.

Why did it take so long for the new record to be announced?
The instrument used to take the world record wind gust was funded by a private company, Chevron, and Chevron's data was not made available to forecasters at Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) during the storm. After the storm, the tropical cyclone experts at BOM were made aware of the data, but it was viewed as suspect, since the gusts were so extreme and the data was taken with equipment of unknown accuracy. Hence, the observations were not included in the post-storm report. Steve Buchan from RPS MetOcean believed in the accuracy of the observations, and coauthored a paper on the record gust, presented at the 1999 Offshore Technology Conference in Houston (Buchan et al., 1999). The data lay dormant until 2009, when Joe Courtney of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology was made aware of it. Courtney wrote up a report, coauthored with Steve Buchan, and presented this to the WMO extremes committee for ratification. The report has not been made public yet, and is awaiting approval by Chevron. The verified data will be released next month at a World Meteorological Organization meeting in Turkey, when the new world wind record will become official.

New Hampshire residents are not happy
Residents of New Hampshire are understandably not too happy about losing their cherished claim to fame. The current home page of the Mount Washington Observatory reads, "For once, the big news on Mount Washington isn't our extreme weather. Sadly, it's about how our extreme weather--our world record wind speed, to be exact--was outdone by that of a warm, tropical island".

Comparison with other wind records
Top wind in an Atlantic hurricane: 239 mph (107 m/s) at an altitude of 1400 meters, measured by dropsonde in Hurricane Isabel (2003).
Top surface wind in an Atlantic hurricane: 211 mph (94.4 m/s), Hurricane Gustav, Paso Real de San Diego meteorological station in the western Cuban province of Pinar del Rio, Cuba, on the afternoon of August 30, 2008.
Top wind in a tornado: 302 mph (135 m/s), measured via Doppler radar at an altitude of 100 meters (330 feet), in the Bridge Creek, Oklahoma tornado of May 3, 1999.
Top surface wind not associated with a tropical cyclone or tornado: 231 mph (103.3 m/s), April 12, 1934 on the summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire.
Top wind in a typhoon: 191 mph (85.4 m/s) on Taiwanese Island of Lanyu, Super Typhoon Ryan, Sep 22, 1995; also on island of Miyakojima, Super Typhoon Cora, Sep 5, 1966.
Top surface wind not measured on a mountain or in a tropical cyclone: 207 mph (92.5 m/s) measured in Greenland at Thule Air Force Base on March 6, 1972.
Top wind measured in a U.S. hurricane: 186 mph (83.1 m/s) measured at Blue Hill Observatory, Massachusetts, during the 1938 New England Hurricane.

References
Buchan, S.J., P.G. Black, and R.L. Cohen, 1999, "The Impact of Tropical Cyclone Olivia on Australia's Northwest Shelf", paper presented at the 1999 Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, Texas, 3-6 May, 1999.

Black, P.G., Buchan, S.J., and R.L. Cohen, 1999, "The Tropical Cyclone Eyewall Mesovortex: A Physical Mechanism Explaining Extreme Peak Gust Occurrence in TC Olivia, 4 April 1996 on Barrow Island, Australia", paper presented at the 1999 Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, Texas, 3-6 May, 1999.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting JFLORIDA:
Problem in Canada causing a bottleneck in calf?!?

looks like its been out for a while - perhaps just got too busy.

I dunno.

My T-1 is great for uploads, but notsofast for much else. 400+ms pings for wundergound, google, and weather.gov
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Quoting atmoaggie:

Yeah. NASA in control from delivery of satellite to orbit...but I am fairly sure NOAA, though a contractor, builds it.

The numbering isn't as clean as I made it out to be. Very neat paper about the history of NOAA satellites here: http://www.osd.noaa.gov/download/JRS012504-GD.pdf

And says that "NOAA-B" was the victim of a launch failure in 1980.


Reading further:

Oh yeah! GOES-G in '86. Was supposed to be GOES-7, but GOES-H took that number. How I forget things, lately...

Another launch pad failure.
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i this noted that we all so have Tropical Cyclone 11
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Quoting Floodman:


Go to run, type in CMD, hit okay. At the DOS prompt you should be able to type "ping www.wunderground.com" (without the quotes) and in a few seconds you should see that 4 packets were sent and each will have a similar but slightly different return time. The average for here was 49ms. 100mbps is your rating on the network connection


I do it, but it closes before I can see it
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Quoting Floodman:


So you're saying it takes 100,000 years to regrow a forest? Just seeking a little clarity...

I don't think he read the link.

It specifically says:
"Most of the immediate carbon emissions are not even from the trees but rather the brush, leaf litter and debris on the forest floor, and even below ground," Law said. "In the past we often did not assess the effects of fire on trees or carbon dynamics very accurately."

Even when a very severe fire kills almost all of the trees in a patch, the scientists said, the trees are still standing and only drop to the forest floor, decay, and release their carbon content very slowly over several decades. Grasses and shrubs quickly grow back after high-severity fires, offsetting some of the carbon release from the dead and decaying trees. And across most of these Metolius burned areas, the researchers observed generally abundant tree regeneration that will result in a relatively fast recovery of carbon uptake and storage.

"A severe fire does turn a forest from a carbon sink into an atmospheric carbon source in the near-term," Law said. "It might take 20-30 years in eastern Oregon, where trees grow and decay more slowly, for the forest to begin absorbing more carbon than it gives off, and 5-10 years on the west side of the Cascades."


http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-01/osu-eof012710.php

We are all talking about a forest fire in the wilderness, right? (as opposed to clearing for farmland or mining operations)
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Quoting tornadodude:
I'm running at 100 mbps


Go to run, type in CMD, hit okay. At the DOS prompt you should be able to type "ping www.wunderground.com" (without the quotes) and in a few seconds you should see that 4 packets were sent and each will have a similar but slightly different return time. The average for here was 49ms. 100mbps is your rating on the network connection
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165.

okay, as Stacey Keach says, the cause of the explosion was 17' long crack in one of the boosters...ummm, a 17' crack? No one saw this this? LOL

Serious need for training: "Cracks? Yes, cracks are bad; they should be reported immediately...but only if they are 18' or better"
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I'm running at 100 mbps
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Current satellite image of Tropical Cyclone Nisha (also take a look at post #69 if you missed it):

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Quoting drg0dOwnCountry:

I think the article misses the fact that a burned/slashed forest acts as a carbon sink.
Than you need to remind yourself how long it takes to grow a healthy ecosystem - around 100.000 years.
(See also PETM event and timespan which corelates with the growth of those diverse ecosystems.)
Thus a lost carbon sink, influences in local/global margins the weather patterns - climate aswell. Hence failed systems contribute to the acceleration of climate changes.


So you're saying it takes 100,000 years to regrow a forest? Just seeking a little clarity...
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Quoting Floodman:


I'm seeing 49ms from north Texas...not too bad


Im in florida 7mb, not slow here
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Quoting JFLORIDA:
Somebody has hit a cable or something limiting the bandwidth the site has available. The internet is rerouting traffic but latency is high in southern Calf.


I'm seeing 49ms from north Texas...not too bad
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Quoting Floodman:


Ok, that makes sense, but it was my understanding that as soon as it goes live, it comes under the control of NOAA

Yeah. NASA in control from delivery of satellite to orbit...but I am fairly sure NOAA, though a contractor, builds it.

The numbering isn't as clean as I made it out to be. Very neat paper about the history of NOAA satellites here: http://www.osd.noaa.gov/download/JRS012504-GD.pdf

And says that "NOAA-B" was the victim of a launch failure in 1980.
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Quoting atmoaggie:
Interesting. If someone was thinking that forest fires emit CO2 in numbers even close to rivaling that of our human existence and fossil fuel combustion, you might want to rethink that notion.

I think the article misses the fact that a burned/slashed forest means a lost carbon sink.
Than you need to remind yourself how long it takes to grow a healthy ecosystem - around 100.000 years.
(See also PETM event and timespan which corelates with the growth of those diverse ecosystems.)
Thus a lost carbon sink, influences in local/global margins the weather patterns - climate aswell. Hence failed systems contribute to the acceleration of climate changes.
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting Floodman:
149.

That is interesting, as I;d always heard that the number would be much higher; is there anything by way of studies/data that corroborate these findings?

Not that I have seen. There is more at the link (now fixed), including info about where more info is published, but only about this study.
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Though not a GOES Launch,..itsa real Bad day when a Delta 2 goes Bad..

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129833
Quoting atmoaggie:

No, GOES-O became GOES 14. I think we lost one on the launch pad, at some point, thus O is not the 14th letter.

GOES-P, assuming it goes up next, as planned, will become GOES 15.


Ok, that makes sense, but it was my understanding that as soon as it goes live, it comes under the control of NOAA
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162. Skyepony (Mod)
Quoting atmoaggie:

Another thought:

Well, aren't we trying to put a scatterometer on their next polar-orbiting weather satellite? They are not going to add in the comms for that instrument for payments in bowls of gumbo. Pretty sure we are already paying in something to Japanese...


That's what i was thinking..that was the beginning of outsourcing for that.. just didn't dawn on me til today..with people concerned we'll out source this too, the initial thought..no it's like contractors but who knows, it's already begun. Wonder how the meeting up at KSC went..

The frozen series was pretty cool, yep even a pic of the fog.
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149.

That is interesting, as I'd always heard that the number would be much higher; is there anything by way of studies/data that corroborate these findings?
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would figure been kinda low on the activity of site considering its the middle of winter this is my first winter on the blogs normally be lucky if ya get a 100 posts a day but seems like more and more are stayin over for the winter
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56021
Quoting Floodman:


If we're talking about GOES O, that would be 15, yes?

No, GOES-O became GOES 14. I think we lost one on the launch pad, at some point, thus O is not the 14th letter.

GOES-P, assuming it goes up next, as planned, will become GOES 15.
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
Site is currently overloaded. Please try again in a few minutes...
Copyright © The Weather Underground, Inc.

what is this message


Yeh,I got that too,sounds like too many people logged into this site,maxing out the capacity.
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
Site is currently overloaded. Please try again in a few minutes...
Copyright © The Weather Underground, Inc.

what is this message


I got that the other day as well
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155. Skyepony (Mod)
Quoting atmoaggie:

But what if NASA paid a private company to develop something that the private company and NASA then used to further develop their own products or services, BUT had to completely and openly share the developed technology with the general public and/or competition?

What you describe goes on all the time. And the resulting data product, methodology, etc. is available for any and all use by everyone.


Then what's the difference between now with contractors & what is purposed "funding for private companies"..
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Quoting Skyepony:
NOAA funding on that Japanese one would be outsourcing to another country..

I don't like how ex-leaders of the NASA contractor companies are on boards to help map NASA's future. So much technology/biology/climatology/chemistry & really about anything comes from there. It could be like taxpayers fund company's research departments & then buy the products..

Another thought:

Well, aren't we trying to put a scatterometer on their next polar-orbiting weather satellite? They are not going to add in the comms for that instrument for payments in bowls of gumbo. Pretty sure we are already paying in something to Japanese...
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Wayne Hale's Blog

Double Indemnity

Posted on Sep 22, 2009 11:48:54 AM | Wayne Hale | 6 Comments

Commercial human space flight is in its infancy. It has been suggested that NASA could do much to encourage or enable the fledgling industry. Supporters cite the historical analogy of US government contracts for air mail delivery in the 1920s as a model for how to kick start the industry. A rosy hued and much abbreviated history of that era suggests that once the government started contract airmail service, modern aviation as we know it inevitably and quickly followed.



It may be worthwhile to remind ourselves of a slightly more detailed version of history.



The US Post Office Department started scheduled airmail service while the Great War was still raging in May 1918. Government aircraft and government pilots delivered air mail in aircraft that were built to detailed government specifications for the next eight years. Twelve government pilots were killed in the first two years of this service. The US Post Office added regularly scheduled transcontinental airmail service in 1920, again with government owned aircraft and government pilots. Following the Kelly Air Mail Act of 1925, the first commercial contract air mail operations started. These were mostly flown by small start-up airlines which were frequently under-capitalized using old government surplus aircraft. By late 1926 all air mail delivery was turned over to these contracts and the government service was discontinued. Fatal accidents were still common among air mail pilots. To an even greater extent than today, the government to industry revolving door phenomenon was present in those days. In 1934 the great air mail scandal erupted. There were charges that government officials had colluded with industry officials (some of whom were former government officials) to fraudulently award air mail contracts to favored companies. FDR cancelled all commercial air mail contracts and called on the US Army Air Service to deliver the mail. Inexperienced military pilots and bad weather resulted in twelve pilot deaths in less than a month. WWI aviation hero Eddie Rickenbacker called the Army Air Service program legalized murder. Within a few months, Congress passed new air mail legislation and a more closely regulated commercial air mail service was restarted. Among the features of the legislation was the provision that banned all former airline executives from further contracts. All the old air line companies were reorganized. Air mail contracts were much less lucrative and the nascent airline companies had to rely increasingly on passenger fares rather than air mail revenues to make their operations profitable. Air craft accidents continued to be frequent and in 1938 the Civil Aviation Administration was formed. The CAA started an era of tight regulations reigned over the air line industry which continued for nearly forty years.



Is this the model that people have in mind for commercial space transportation?



Of course, a paragraph or two doesnt do justice to the rich and complex history of aviation in the 1920s and 1930s. Go read the biography of Dutch Kindelberger, for example. Some airlines, like Pan Am, became profitable carrying passengers without the subsidy of air mail. The transportation of equipment and goods for purely commercial reasons apart from government contracts was a significant business. Air races stimulated technical advances. And what happened in the USA was only part of the story as airlines sprang up crossing the globe from Europe to Africa or Australia or South America. It wasnt just the air mail contracts that spurred aviation in its golden years.



Changing focus slightly, it is often noted that the Air Force does not build its own airplane; the Army does not build its own tanks, why should NASA build its own spacecraft?


NASA, of course, does not build human spacecraft. Never has. Commercial companies have built all human spacecraft and their launch vehicles. McDonnell built Mercury and Gemini, North American Aviation and Grumman built the Apollo CSM and LM respectively. Chrysler built the Redstone rocket and the first stage of the Saturn 1B launch vehicle, and so forth. The renamed North American Rockwell built the Space Shuttle orbiter. When I became NASA's Shuttle Program Manager, I was surprised to find that the detailed design and production drawings for the Space Shuttle orbiter were the intellectual property of Rockwell International Space Division which has since become part of Boeing. The government, while definitely involved with the design, did not do the detailed part of the design and does not own the intellectual property for the shuttle. Many boxes and piece parts remain proprietary and not under the detailed purview of the government. That seems commercial at some level, doesnt it?



Thinking more about the military services, a recent speaker at NASA was from the Navy ship bureau in charge of building aircraft carriers. The Navy doesnt build aircraft carriers, a commercial company does that; but the Navy is intimately involved in the detailed design of every part of a new aircraft carrier. And the Air Force is intimately involved in the design of new jet fighters like the F-22 and the F-35. Sometimes this backfires on a company; ask about the presidential helicopter program. There is a real lesson there.



So what is being proposed for commercial human spacecraft for government use? A contract that merely asks a provider to transport our 4-ish person ISS crew from some place on the earth's surface to the ISS for a fee? No other questions asked? Somehow I think that is not really what is going to happen. Even the airlines and aircraft builders have to pass FAA certification for flight worthiness. So if the government contracts for transportation service there is going to be some government involvement. Oh, and dont even ask about federal procurement regulations. Remember the 1934 air mail scandal? There are a slew of laws and regulations intended to prevent something like that from happening again.



So the real question is how much or how little the government will be involved in the design/certification/operation of commercially contracted human space vehicles. Neither the current model of intimate and controlling design authority nor a totally hands off approach is realistic.



Like almost all of life, there is going to be a compromise. The devil is in the details. It seems to me that we need to spend a serious amount of thought and discussion on how best to do this. Far more than a couple of paragraphs in an essay or a report.



Indemnification. I have heard a lot about that word lately. Had to look it up. Currently the US government indemnifies the companies that build and operate our current space vehicles. If they crash, the government, not the companies, is held liable. That is not the way the airlines work; if an airliner crashes, the airline company or sometimes the aircraft manufacturer are held responsibility and are subject to civil legal action. Some of the putative commercial human space flight providers want the government to indemnify them, take the responsibility if they crash. The original airmail contracts didnt do that in 1925.



Seems like we have a lot to think about as we move commercial human space flight.



We might even learn from history.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129833
been getting that for 15 minutes finally got in
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56021
Quoting atmoaggie:

Tough question...if it is from the EU, I'd initially go with the policies of METEOSAT as a guess-answer to that.

I think the Japanese are more likely to share.

All of the above depends on whether or not there was any NOAA funding provided as a "joint venture". If so, better access is likely.


If we're talking about GOES O, that would be 15, yes?
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Site is currently overloaded. Please try again in a few minutes...
Copyright The Weather Underground, Inc.

Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56021
Interesting. If someone was thinking that forest fires emit CO2 in numbers even close to rivaling that of our human existence and fossil fuel combustion, you might want to rethink that notion.
I'll admit that I was curious myself as to just how much did come from a major forest fire.

Effects of forest fire on carbon emissions, climate impacts often overestimated
CORVALLIS, Ore. %u2013 A recent study at Oregon State University indicates that some past approaches to calculating the impacts of forest fires have grossly overestimated the number of live trees that burn up and the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere as a result.

The research was done on the Metolius River Watershed in the central Oregon Cascade Range, where about one-third %u2013 or 100,000 acres %u2013 of the area burned in four large fires in 2002-03. Although some previous studies assumed that 30 percent of the mass of living trees was consumed during forest fires, this study found that only 1-3 percent was consumed.

Some estimates done around that time suggested that the B&B Complex fire in 2003, just one of the four Metolius fires, released 600 percent more carbon emissions than all other energy and fossil fuel use that year in the state of Oregon %u2013 but this study concluded that the four fires combined produced only about 2.5 percent of annual statewide carbon emissions.

Even in 2002, the most extreme fire year in recent history, the researchers estimate that all fires across Oregon emitted only about 22 percent of industrial and fossil fuel emissions in the state %u2013 and that number is much lower for most years, about 3 percent on average for the 10 years from 1992 to 2001.


more: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-01/osu-eof012710.php
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NASA dosent build rockets,..private companies always have.

Boeing,Chrysler, Rockwell,Lockheed-Martin..all have a stake in these past and in their present forms.
To not Fund ARES or Constellation will Leave the US without a Manned Spacecraft after the Final Shuttle flies.

And that would be a sad day indeed.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129833
Quoting Skyepony:
NOAA funding on that Japanese one would be outsourcing to another country..

I don't like how ex-leaders of the NASA contractor companies are on boards to help map NASA's future. So much technology/biology/climatology/chemistry & really about anything comes from there. It could be like taxpayers fund company's research departments & then buy the products..

But what if NASA paid a private company to develop something that the private company and NASA then used to further develop their own products or services, BUT had to completely and openly share the developed technology with the general public and/or competition?

What you describe goes on all the time. And the resulting data product, methodology, etc. is available for any and all use by everyone.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
145. Skyepony (Mod)
NOAA funding on that Japanese one would be outsourcing to another country..

I don't like how ex-leaders of the NASA contractor companies are on boards to help map NASA's future. So much technology/biology/climatology/chemistry & really about anything comes from there. It could be like taxpayers fund company's research departments & then buy the products..
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You can totally see which way the wind was blowing...

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Quoting Skyepony:
Hore frost makes a soft rime. Maybe a little of that in there..

It may look soft, but I promise all of the ice in the pic above is rock hard.

Click on the "Mike Theiss" after the image credit, there are more pics. Including one showing someone chipping away at it with a crowbar.
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NOAA, Japan Establish Navigation Satellite Ground Station in Guam

August 27, 2009

Officials from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) unveiled a new ground station in Guam that will track spacecraft from JAXA’s upcoming Quasi-Zenith Satellite System.

The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System, designed to work seamlessly with the U.S. Global Positioning System, is a JAXA effort to improve navigation satellite coverage over Japan and surrounding areas. The first QZSS satellite is expected to launch in 2010.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129833
141. Skyepony (Mod)
Hore frost makes a soft rime. Maybe a little of that in there..
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Dec 8 2009
NASA Marks the Joint Typhoon Warning Center's 50th Anniversary


This year, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) turns 50 years old, and NASA is proud to be one of their partners in tropical cyclone forecasting and research.

JTWC is a joint U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force office that includes Navy, Air Force and civilian meteorologists and satellite analysts. The center, located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, provides forecasts, advisories and warnings on tropical cyclones (the generic name for a typhoon, cyclone, hurricane, tropical storm or tropical depression).

NASA does not forecast tropical cyclones, but provides satellite data to the JTWC to enable meteorologists there to create forecasts for tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean and southern hemisphere. In turn, NASA posts JTWC's forecasts for cyclones that occur in these regions on the NASA Hurricane and Tropical Cyclone page.

JTWC provides tropical cyclone reconnaissance and forecasting to support the safety of military and other government assets in the U.S. Pacific Command and U.S. Central Command areas of responsibility. JTWC forecasters there use NASA, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and foreign satellite sensors, in addition to shore, buoy, ship, and aircraft observations and surface radar imagery. They also utilize the forecasts produced by computer models operated by the United States, Japan, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts in the production of tropical cyclone forecasts.

Bill Patzert, climate scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. said, "For the JTWC, hurricane, cyclone and typhoon forecasting is a year-round job. When the seasons switch hemispheres, the JTWC follows. They are a 24/7, all year center. For the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans (in both hemispheres), the Center is the go-to cyclone forecasting group. For the past 50 years, they have not only insured the safety of America's fighting forces, but also served the many nations of the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans. Also, for all scientists, the JTWC archive is an invaluable scientific resource."

Up until it’s recent failure, the center routinely used NASA QuikSCAT scatterometer-derived ocean surface wind vectors (speed and direction) data to monitor storm genesis (determine when systems reach tropical depression status), storm location, and the radius of gale force winds.

Other NASA satellite data used by JTWC include the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission’s (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and its precipitation radar, Aqua’s Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), the CloudSat cloud radar, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard both NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129833
Quoting PcolaDan:


Absolutely beautiful when this happens. Have seen it so think you can't see through a chain link fence. Then run your fingers across the fence after the sun comes out and it's a shower sparkling of ice crystals. Plus it starts drifting in the air. Sooo uh, 60's/70's reminiscent. :)


LOL I have seen plenty of it here :P
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Quoting Skyepony:


Yes I know..that's why I called it GOES-14..I think you could find a picture of it launching in my pictures.. I wanna say it went up on a Delta heavy..

Japan & other countries have been putting resources toward climate monitoring satellites. There's already talk of using some of their data. Think it will be open to the web for us to see?

Tough question...if it is from the EU, I'd initially go with the policies of METEOSAT as a guess-answer to that.

I think the Japanese are more likely to share.

All of the above depends on whether or not there was any NOAA funding provided as a "joint venture". If so, better access is likely.
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Quoting tornadodude:
From weather.com :

FREEZING FOG
Used to describe the phenomena when fog is present and the air temperature is below 0°C. It is reported as "FZFG" in an observation and on the METAR.



Absolutely beautiful when this happens. Have seen it so think you can't see through a chain link fence. Then run your fingers across the fence after the sun comes out and it's a shower sparkling of ice crystals. Plus it starts drifting in the air. Sooo uh, 60's/70's reminiscent. :)
Member Since: August 22, 2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 6010
91. Does anyone else think this looks like a cherry bomb?
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Quoting GodisinControl:


does the fog form at above freezing and then turn ice after below freezing

This is how rime ice occurs, but the fog can be, and usually is, below freezing, yet still liquid (which we call super-cooled). Then once it touches a surface, freezes immediately.

But you can have fog that is frozen in air as well. It doesn't attach itself to surfaces nearly as well.

Icing on wings of aircraft is usually rime-type. Baaaaad for flying.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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