Greenland update for 2010: record melting and a massive calving event

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:31 PM GMT on March 04, 2011

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No humans were present on the morning of August 4, 2010, in a remote fjord in Northwest Greenland, when the air vibrated with a thunderous crack as one of the largest icebergs in world history calved from the Petermann Glacier, the island's second largest ocean-terminating glacier. Where the glacier meets the sea, a 43 mile-long tongue of floating ice existed at the beginning of 2010. On August 4 2010, a quarter of this 43 mile-long tongue of floating ice fractured off, spawning a 100 square mile ice island four times the size of Manhattan, with a thickness half that of the Empire State building. According to Andreas Muenchow, associate professor of physical ocean science and engineering at the University of Delaware's College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment, the freshwater stored in this ice island could have kept the Delaware or Hudson rivers flowing for more than two years, or kept all U.S. public tap water flowing for 120 days. There was speculation that the ice island could find its way into the open Atlantic Ocean in two years, and potentially pose a threat to oil platforms and ships. However, as the ice island made its turn to get from the narrow Petermann Fjord to enter Nares Strait between Greenland and Canada, the mighty iceberg split into thousands of small icebergs that will not pose an unusual threat to shipping when they emerge into the Atlantic.


Figure 1. The 100 square-mile ice island that broke off the Petermann Glacier heads out of the Petermann Fjord in this image taken by NASA's Aqua satellite on August 21, 2010. Image credit: NASA. I've constructed a 7-frame satellite animation available here that shows the calving and break-up of the Petermann Glacier ice island. The animation begins on August 5, 2010, and ends on September 21, with images spaced about 8 days apart. The images were taken by NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites.

Petermann Glacier spawned smaller ice islands in 2001 (34 square miles) and in 2008 (10 square miles). In 2005, the Ayles Ice Shelf, about 60 miles to the west of Petermann Glacier, disintegrated and became a 34 square-mile ice island. The August 2010 Petermann Glacier calving event created the largest iceberg observed in the Arctic since 1962, when the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on the north coast of Canada's Ellesmere Island calved off a massive 230 square mile chunk. The Ward Hunt Ice Shelf also calved off a huge 21 square mile ice island a few days after the August 2010 Petermann Glacier calving event. According to an article in livescience.com, "Driftwood and narwhal remains found along the Ellesmere coast have radiocarbon dates from roughly 3,000 to 6,800 years ago, implying that the ice has been intact since those remains were deposited." All of the these calving events are evidence that the ice sheets in the Arctic are responding as one would expect to significantly warmer temperatures.

Warmer ocean temperatures cause significant melting of Greenland's glaciers
At a talk last December at the world's largest conference on climate change, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting in San Francisco, glacier expert Eric Rignot of UC-Irvine implicated ocean warming as a key reason for the calving of the Petermann Glacier's ice island. The ocean waters near the glacier have warmed by 1 - 2°C over the past three years, he said, and all of the periphery of Greenland has seen ocean heat increases in recent years, with the result that 20 - 80% of all the mass lost by Greenland's glaciers in recent years could be attributed to melting of the glaciers by warmer waters attacking them from beneath. Ocean temperatures along the southwest coast of Greenland (60N to 70N, 60W to 50W) computed from the UK Hadley Center data set during 2010 were 2.9°C (5.2°F) above average--a truly remarkable anomaly, and far warmer than the previous record of 1.5°C above average set in 2003. Sea surface temperature records for Greenland began in the 1920s. A study earlier this year published in the journal Science (Spielhagen et al., 2011) found that ocean temperatures on the east side of Greenland are now at their warmest levels in at least 2,000 years. The researchers studied a sediment core containing fossil remains of planktic foraminifers, which vary as a function of water temperature. The study noted that not only have the waters flowing northward on the east side of Greenland warmed significantly, the volume of water flowing north has also increased, resulting in a large transport of heat into the Arctic. "Such an increased heat input has far-reaching consequences," they wrote.


Figure 2. Departure of sea surface temperature from average for 2010 from the NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation SST Anomaly data set for October 2010. Areas colored red are warmer than the 1971-2000 average, areas colored blue are cooler than that average. A large region of record warm water temperatures extended along the west coast of Greenland, leading to record warm air temperatures and record melting along the western portion of Greenland in 2010. Ocean temperatures along the southwest coast of Greenland (60N to 70N, 60W to 50W) computed from the UK Hadley Center data set during 2010 were 2.9°C (5.2°F) above average--a truly remarkable anomaly, surpassing the previous record of 1.5°C set in 2003. Sea surface temperature records for Greenland began in the 1920s. Image credit: NOAA Visualization Lab.

Record warmth and melting in Greenland during 2010
Greenland's climate in 2010 was marked by record-setting high air temperatures, the greatest ice loss by melting since accurate records began in 1958, and the greatest mass loss of ocean-terminating glaciers on record. That was the conclusion of the 2010 Arctic Report Card, a collaborative effort between NOAA and European Arctic experts that comes out each year. Was 2010 the warmest year in Greenland's history? That is difficult to judge. We know it was also very warm in the late 1920s and 1930s in Greenland, but we only have two stations, Godtahab Nuuk and Angmagssalik, with weather records that go back that far (Figure 3.) Godtahab Nuuk set a record high in 2010, but temperatures at Angmagssalik in 2010 were similar to what was observed during several years in the 1920s and 1930s. Marco Tedesco of the City College of New York's Cryosphere Processes Laboratory remarked that last year's record warmth and melting in Greenland began when an unusually early spring warm spell reduced and "aged" the snow on the surface of the ice sheet, so that the snow became less reflective, allowing it to absorb more heat from the sun. This accelerated snow melt even further, exposing the bare ice, which is less reflective than snow and absorbs more heat. This feedback loop extended Greenland's record melting season well into the fall.


Figure 3. Historic temperatures in Greenland for the six stations with at least 50 years of data, as archived by NASA. Three of the six stations set record highs in 2010. However, only two of the six stations (Godtahab Nuuk and Angmagssalik) have data going back beyond the 1930s, which was a period of warmth in Greenland similar to the warmth of the current decade. Godtahab Nuuk set a record high in 2010, but 2003 still ranks as Angmagssalik's hottest year on record.


Figure 4. The 2010 summer melt season was lasted more than 40 days longer (purple colors) than the mean melt season from 1979 - 2007. Image credit: Arctic Report Card.

Why Greenland matters: sea level rise
The major concern with a warming climate in Greenland is melting of the Greenland ice sheet, which currently contributes about 25% of the observed 3 mm/year (1.2 inches per decade) global rise in sea level. Higher sea levels mean increased storm surge inundation, coastal erosion, loss of low-lying land areas, and salt water contamination of underground drinking water supplies. Greenland ice mass loss is accelerating over the long term, according to independent estimates using three different techniques (Figure 5), with more mass being lost each year than the previous year. According to Rignot et al., 2011, ice mass loss is also accelerating in Antarctica, and "the magnitude of the acceleration suggests that ice sheets will be the dominant contributors to sea level rise in forthcoming decades, and will likely exceed the IPCC projections for the contribution of ice sheets to sea level rise in the 21st century." As I discussed in a 2009 blog post, How much will global sea level rise this century?, the IPCC in 2007 estimated that global sea level would rise 0.6 - 1.9 feet by 2100, but several studies since then predict a higher range of 1.6 - 6.6 feet.

During the warm period 125,000 years ago, before the most recent ice age, roughly half of the Greenland ice sheet melted. This melting plus the melting of other smaller Arctic ice fields is thought to have caused 7.2 - 11.2 feet (2.2 - 3.4 meters) of the 13 - 20 foot (4 - 6 meter) sea level rise observed during that period. Temperatures in Greenland are predicted to rise 3°C by 2100, to levels similar to 125,000 years ago. If this level of warming occurs, we can expect sea levels to rise 13 - 20 feet several centuries from now. There's enough water locked away in the ice sheet to raise sea level to rise 23 feet (7 meters), should the entire Greenland ice sheet melt.


Figure 5. Loss of mass from Greenland's ice sheet in gigatons per year from 1992 through 2009, as computed from satellite gravity measurements from the GRACE satellites (red line) and from a mass balance method. The mass balance method computes the amount of snow on the surface, the amount of ice mass lost to wind and melt, and the amount of ice lost computed from glacier velocity and ice thickness. Adding together these terms gives the total amount of ice lost or gained over the ice sheet. The acceleration is given in gigatons per year squared. Another paper by Zwally et al. (2011) used a third method, laser satellite altimetry, to determine Greenland mass loss. Between 2003 to 2007, the ice sheet lost 171 gigatons of mass per year. Between 1992 to 2002, Greenland was only losing only 7 gigatons per year. Image credit: Rignot et al., 2011, Geophysical Research Letters.

References
Rignot, E., et al., 2011: Acceleration of the contribution of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to sea level rise, Geophysical Research Letters, in press, doi:10.1029/2011GL046583.

Spielhagen, et al., 2011, Enhanced Modern Heat Transfer to the Arctic by Warm Atlantic Water, Science 28 January 2011: Vol. 331 no. 6016 pp. 450-453 DOI: 10.1126/science.1197397

Zwally, J., et al., 2011, Greenland ice sheet mass balance: distribution of increased mass loss with climate warming; 2003 - 07 versus 19922 - 2002, Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 57, No. 201, 2011.

Wunderground's climate change section has a Greenland web page with detailed information and references.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting seflagamma:
Hi Levi,

Which blob are you watching? Is there any hope for some rain to swirl up and come to South Florida ... we are bone dry, the diest in years...since TS Faye busted our previous drought...



Hey Gamma. It looks like a front will come swinging through the southeast in 48-60 hours. You will hopefully get a wetting from that.

The blob I refer to is this one:

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188. beell
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http://www.wunderground.com/blog/HurricaneKatrina/s how.html
I written much on my blog about what this could lead to. That much much freshwater could shut off the conveyor belt as it did at the start of the younger dryas.
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Quoting atmoaggie:
But, according to the blog hives, professionals in the field of weather have zero credibility and ability in the realm of climatology. This had to be done to discount the opinions of a huge group of scientists meteorologists that were not going along with the agenda as good sheeple should.

Some here would like us to believe that the average meteorologist has no more climate-sense and is no more of a scientist than the average artist, cop, or sanitation engineer.



1000000

Sure is crazy isn't it?

Truly it baffles my mind the way some people think...
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151 washingtonian115 "I will ask again.40 isn't old is it?.My daughter calls me an old head like I'm 80 or something."

Whadja expect? You were born circa 10BC*

* Before(personal)Computers
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clearing nicely
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Hi Levi,

Which blob are you watching? Is there any hope for some rain to swirl up and come to South Florida ... we are bone dry, the diest in years...since TS Faye busted our previous drought...

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Quoting AstroHurricane001:


Weather is science. This is a weather blog. NEXT!
But, according to the blog hives, professionals in the field of weather have zero credibility and ability in the realm of climatology. This had to be done to discount the opinions of a huge group of scientists meteorologists that were not going along with the agenda as good sheeple should.

Some here would like us to believe that the average meteorologist has no more climate-sense and is no more of a scientist than the average artist, cop, or sanitation engineer.
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Quoting Orcasystems:


Its posts like that that get peoples hackles up. Do you say I am in denial? .. you have seen many of my posts and questions.

If I ask a question of you.. you either answer it if you can.. and if it doesn't fit your theory, you skate around it.

BUT the three of you have a tendency of Criticize, Attack, $ Ridicule if their references are not from one of your "approved" "Peer reviewed" sources.

Maybe you should cut a little more slack and listen instead of attacking?

Ummm...I called out nobody in particular in that post; I was just commenting on the general tone of the forum in the hour or so before I posted, a tone that was very immature and disrespectful and anti-science in content and scope. I was only referring to you if you were one of the guilty ones; if not, it was meant for others who were.

BTW, I did answer--in detail--a question you directed at me this morning. Did you not see it? Go back and look; you'll find it, and you'll find in turn that I didn't "skate around" anything. (FWIW, there are times someone may direct a comment to me that I miss due to other commitments; rather than assume that I'm avoiding answering, they might want to "cut a little more slack" and simply re-ask the question.)
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The GFS only sees the closed low later on (72+ hours) but has a (very) shallow warm-core center before the system moves into sub-20C water.



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179. Skyepony (Mod)
Launch is no-go due to high winds & cumulus rule.. Retry tomorrow.

Good news is Iron Horse has been getting rain.
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Contentions for low-probability subtropical characteristics could be made for this system over the next 3-4 days.

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Quoting JFLORIDA:


The problem with exclusively using quotes to support your scientific position is they are so vague as to invariably be applied to multiple instances in any detailed and complicated situation.

They are narrative observations to be applied to similar circumstance.

The quote is not really science itself, but a narrative of a situation that arose in scientific pursuit.

So again non sequitur. Bad argument.

Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is an enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world. An older meaning still in use today is that of Aristotle, for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained.

But it was a good quote. Reason is absolute and quite venerable in its use in scientific circles.


Weather is science. This is a weather blog. NEXT!
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Goodness, I have a son that will be 36 the end of March.... 40 is still a youngster!
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Quoting NRAamy:
why don't the muslim terrorists declare a jihad on global warming? maybe they don't believe in it either?


Probably because they'd rather let it continue and cripple the US economy? Don't quote me on this because I read that on a US conservative blog claiming that this statement by al-Qaeda refutes the existence of AGW because they said it.
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Quoting washingtonian115:
I will ask again.40 isn't old is it?.My duaghter calls me an old head like I'm 80 or something.


Goodness no, 40 is the new 20!
I'm 57 and most of the time I think I am 37! LOL

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Quoting EYEStoSEA:


Believe me, 40 is YOUNG !!

You may want to take a look at Levi's Blog today(Tidbit Video). You will like it ;)
Heh I don't know when I was about 11 and until now I think that 40 is the limit when it comes to having youth.
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Interesting blog post, Dr. Masters. Notice the large SST warm anomalies along the southern and southwestern coasts of Greenland, as well as the eastern edge of Hudson Bay during October 2010. This can be at least indirectly traced to Gulf Stream variations, which are visible toward the bottom of the image as a circular warm anomaly. Also, Western Greenland broke some all-time daily temperature records when 2011 started as the 20C+ warm anomalies were still in place over the atmosphere. You'll see that Egedesminde weather station, located on the cusp of the major Jakobshavn Isbrae glacial outlet which also contains a subglacial trench, recorded a record high year-round temperature in 2010, the first in its station history at or above freezing. The page on Greenland also shows a strong ice sheet elevation decrease directly on that area, as well as some warm anomalies extending up to the outlet over the Labrador Sea. Since the warm anomalies are in a somewhat continuous pattern, it's possible that a long-term trend is developing in which Gulf Stream warm water is being diverted west of Greenland instead of its usual path toward Europe, which is a pattern that will favour future melting of western Greenland and colder winters in northern Europe as well as stronger storms over Newfoundland which could then retrograde over North America or plough into Europe. This type of pattern involves many elements not seen frequently in the historical record for over a century. In the grander scheme of things, this is significant evidence that prevailing atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns are shifting as a result of a non-oscillational forcing and that the melting of land ice may also have been involved in this shift.
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Quoting RecordSeason:
Radar estimated storm total is a joke, says 0.6 to 1 inch for Springfield.

We've got significantly more than that.

According to two separate rain gauges in our back yard, we are at exactly 2 inches.
Maybe is.

The AHPS analysis isn't available realtime because they bias correct the radar rainfall against official rainfall totals (gauges). This product: http://water.weather.gov/precip/
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Quoting Cochise000:


This is not the place? Anyone, and I mean anyone, who disagrees with this cultish AGW stuff is attacked viciously, whether it is with snide comments or name-calling. You, yourself, called someone's attempt at humor "stupid." Is that not a personal attack? Good lord, perhaps you might include yourself in your self-made rules.


I said the remark was stupid.. not the person.

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167. Skyepony (Mod)
The U.S. military's second experimental X-37B spaceplane, the covert prototype for an unmanned reusable space shuttle, will be launched into Earth orbit today by an Atlas 5 rocket booster. Clouds and high winds in the area have forced a delay in liftoff to at least 5:27 p.m. EST (2227 GMT) from Cape Canaveral, Florida.
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Quoting JohnTucker:


Really I shouldn't have to respond to posts like 113. I see both you and atmo you were amused by it. Should the topic come up as a relevant conversation it will be interesting to see what positions of authority you speak from and find amusement.
? Wasn't about you.

And I seriously doubt that redundancy will ever be the topic of relevant conversation. And should it, I'll likely not be participating as I don't have any formal experience, nor a degree, in redundancy.
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Parade goers not happy about the rain and forecast, but we sure do need it. (Though Ash Wednesday and beyond would have fine, thanks.)

Percent of normal rainfall for the last 2 months:


Equivalent to 6 - 8 inches short for SE LA.
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Quoting Cochise000:


Sometimes "stupid" can be amusing, though. I believe his post was hyperbolic satire. It's close to the truth about what goes on here. There are several on this blog who preach to each other in their own little world leading kum ba ya choruses against non-existent "global warming." I'm certain they don't practice what they preach, otherwise they'd be ditching their a/c systems and riding bicycles.


I am visiting here in the democratic stronghold of Long Island NY and I marvel at the "save your mother (earth)" "Stop Global Warming" Bumper stickers on the backs of the LX470'S and Nissan Armanda's ETC. As I putt along in my Rav4 (4cyl) doing the speed limit(35 mph on most Nassau County roads) and these Obama 08 supporters roar past at 60 mph ( no lie as I tried to catch up to one early this morning ) and
then slam on the brakes for the ever present inter-
section red light cameras and instant email ticket
machines, I wonder how they can be so hypocritical. If you warmies ever what another chance at
winning an election, better start a deep search in
your soul, and see if the Volt is in your future.
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Quoting Orcasystems:


Its posts like that that get peoples hackles up. Do you say I am in denial? .. you have seen many of my posts and questions.

If I ask a question of you.. you either answer it if you can.. and if it doesn't fit your theory, you skate around it.

BUT the three of you have a tendency of Criticize, Attack, $ Ridicule if their references are not from one of your "approved" "Peer reviewed" sources.

Maybe you should cut a little more slack and listen instead of attacking?



clapping hands "Bravo!"
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Quoting beell:


redundant post.
;-)
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Not convertable weather...

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Quoting washingtonian115:
I will ask again.40 isn't old is it?.My duaghter calls me an old head like I'm 80 or something.


Believe me, 40 is YOUNG !!

You may want to take a look at Levi's Blog today(Tidbit Video). You will like it ;)
Member Since: September 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1496
Quoting MILLERTIME1:
I do not understand the world,but I watch it progress
...and regress.
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TORNADO WARNING
MOC007-137-163-173-042245-
/O.NEW.KLSX.TO.W.0013.110304T2149Z-110304T2245Z/

BULLETIN - EAS ACTIVATION REQUESTED
TORNADO WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE ST LOUIS MO
349 PM CST FRI MAR 4 2011

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN ST LOUIS HAS ISSUED A

* TORNADO WARNING FOR...
EASTERN AUDRAIN COUNTY IN CENTRAL MISSOURI...
SOUTHEASTERN MONROE COUNTY IN NORTHEAST MISSOURI...
WESTERN PIKE COUNTY IN NORTHEAST MISSOURI...
SOUTHERN RALLS COUNTY IN NORTHEAST MISSOURI...

* UNTIL 445 PM CST

* AT 346 PM CST...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DOPPLER RADAR INDICATED A
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM CAPABLE OF PRODUCING A TORNADO. THIS DANGEROUS
STORM WAS LOCATED NEAR MEXICO...AND MOVING NORTHEAST AT 40 MPH.

* LOCATIONS IMPACTED INCLUDE...
SANTA FE...VANDALIA...BOWLING GREEN...LADDONIA...FARBER...PERRY...
SPENCERBURG...CURRYVILLE...FRANKFORD...BENTON CITY...RUSH HILL...
ASHLEY...ST. CLEMENT AND CYRENE.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

TAKE COVER NOW. MOVE TO AN INTERIOR ROOM ON THE LOWEST FLOOR OF A
STURDY BUILDING. AVOID WINDOWS. IF IN A MOBILE HOME...A VEHICLE OR
OUTDOORS...MOVE TO THE CLOSEST SUBSTANTIAL SHELTER AND PROTECT
YOURSELF FROM FLYING DEBRIS.

&&

LAT...LON 3960 9120 3928 9107 3915 9159 3915 9164
3913 9164 3906 9190 3938 9190 3949 9159
TIME...MOT...LOC 2149Z 245DEG 34KT 3917 9182

$$

KANOFSKY



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I will ask again.40 isn't old is it?.My duaghter calls me an old head like I'm 80 or something.
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I do not understand the world,but I watch it progress
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149. beell
Quoting atmoaggie:
Aren't they all?
Just sayin'


redundant post.
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Quoting JohnTucker:



Do you think consensus in science is agreement outside of facts or reason?

Hopefully your conclusions are reasonable or the strength of your sources is meaningless. ( sorry Im posting in my other blog - its me)

I plussed your Sagan quote. I miss him.

I got "Cosmos" for my 11th birthday. That and some of his other books (Dragons of Eden, Contact) impacted my choice of careers.
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The trees outside are blooming rapidly despite it being cool outside.So when a warm pattern finally locks in all hell will break loose when it comes to peoples alergies.I know mines will...freaking alergies..
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Glory Satellite To Aid in Understanding Global Warming
Tue, 25 January, 2011






WASHINGTON — A NASA climate-monitoring satellite is set to launch in late February on a three-year mission to improve scientific understanding of how the Earth’s energy balance affects global warming.

NASA’s Glory satellite, which is equipped with a suite of instruments to measure solar output and particles in the Earth’s atmosphere, arrived at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on Jan. 11, in preparation for a planned Feb. 23 launch.

The Glory satellite is designed in part to continue NASA’s 32-year record of monitoring the total solar irradiance that reaches the Earth, an important variable in the study of global climate change. In addition, it will be NASA’s first satellite capable of identifying and quantifying the man-made and natural aerosols in the atmosphere that may be one of the least well understood variables affecting Earth’s climate.

The 525-kilogram Glory satellite was built and integrated by Dulles, Va.-based Orbital Sciences Corp. using a satellite platform that was originally intended for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar mission NASA canceled in 2001. Orbital Sciences will launch the satellite aboard its Taurus XL rocket, which is making its return to flight two years after it failed in an attempt to launch NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite. Glory will be placed into a 705-kilometer near-polar orbit, joining five other NASA spacecraft flying in close proximity that are collectively known as the A-train.

The $424.1 million Glory mission is some 16 months behind its original launch schedule. Most of the delay was attributed to development troubles with the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor built by Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems of El Segundo, Calif. The satellite was most recently planned for launch in November until a problem arose with the assembly that turns its solar arrays. NASA turned to Honeybee Robotics of New York, which in two months designed, built, installed and tested a new twisting mechanism for the assembly.

Glory is the successor to NASA’s Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment satellite, which has been on orbit for eight years and is well beyond its design life. Glory’s Total Irradiance Monitor instrument was built by the University of Colorado’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder. Solar measurements recorded by this instrument will be three times more precise than measurements taken by the existing instrument, said Greg Kopp, a University of Colorado instrument scientist.

The sun had been the primary agent of climate change on Earth for millions of years, but since the Industrial Revolution spun into full swing during 19th century, man-made effects are thought to have become a far greater factor than the sun.

“Prior to about 150 years ago a lot of the Earth’s climate variability was driven by the sun,” Kopp said in an interview. “Since then, anthropogenic effects … like greenhouse gases have really taken over what’s driving climate change. The sun is still an influence, but more at the 15 percent level. So when we’re trying to discriminate how much of climate change is due to human-caused effects versus natural effects, we need to be monitoring the sun to attribute the appropriate amount due to variability in the sun.”

Link




Me thinks someone may have turned this tool into a
Glorious Fireball to not further embarrass Nasa lead
climate scientists mis-interpretation of the data.


Not, but the sentence below really does disturb me.


"“Prior to about 150 years ago a lot of the Earth’s climate variability was driven by the sun,” Kopp said in an interview. “Since then, anthropogenic effects … like greenhouse gases have really taken over what’s driving climate change. The sun is still an influence, but more at the 15 percent level."

Is this guy for real, most single star
planetary systems are directly driven by the star at the center of the system, as is SOL, the primary climate generating source. Vulcanism and excessive gravitational forces aside>
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You back home, Floodman?

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN ST LOUIS HAS ISSUED A

* TORNADO WARNING FOR...
SOUTHEASTERN BOONE COUNTY IN CENTRAL MISSOURI...
CENTRAL CALLAWAY COUNTY IN CENTRAL MISSOURI...
MONTGOMERY COUNTY IN EAST CENTRAL MISSOURI...

* UNTIL 415 PM CST

* AT 333 PM CST...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DOPPLER RADAR INDICATED A
SEVERE SQUALL LINE CAPABLE OF PRODUCING BRIEF RAIN-WRAPPED
TORNADOES IN ADDITION TO WIDESPREAD STRAIGHT LINE WIND DAMAGE. THIS
DANGEROUS STORM WAS LOCATED 7 MILES NORTHEAST OF ASHLAND...AND
MOVING EAST AT 45 MPH.
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From Link nature.com

"Climate change may be hitting home. Rises in global average temperature are remote from most people's experience, but two studies in this week's Nature1,2 conclude that climate warming is already causing extreme weather events that affect the lives of millions."

"But with a combination of climate models, weather observations and a good dose of probability theory, scientists may be able to determine how climate warming changes the odds. An earlier study3, for example, found that global warming has at least doubled the likelihood of extreme events such as the 2003 European heatwave."

References
Min, S.-K. et al. Nature 470, 378-381 (2011). | Article
Pall, P. et al. Nature 470, 382-385 (2011). | Article
Stott, P. A. et al. Nature 432, 610-614 (2004). | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |

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Quoting JFLORIDA:
redundant post.
Aren't they all?
Just sayin'
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hmmmmm
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.