March 2012: warmest in U.S. history

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:12 PM GMT on April 10, 2012

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Not only was March 2012 the warmest March in the U.S. since record keeping began in 1895, it was also the second most extreme month for warmth in U.S. history, said NOAA yesterday, in their monthly "State of the Climate" report. The average temperature of 51.1°F was 8.6 degrees above the 20th century average for March, and 0.5°F warmer than the previous warmest March in 1910. Of the more than 1,400 months that have passed since the U.S. weather records began in 1895, only one month--January 2006--had a larger departure from its average temperature than March 2012. A remarkable 25 states east of the Rockies had their warmest March on record, and an additional 15 states had a top-ten warmest March. Only four states were cooler than average, with Alaska being the coldest (tenth coldest March on record.)


Figure 1. Temperature rankings for March 2012 in the Contiguous U.S. Twenty five states set records for warmest March in the 118-year records (red colors.) Image credit: NOAA.

March 2012: most daily records broken of any month since July 1936
A wunderground analysis of weather records from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center temperature record database reveals that more daily high temperature records were broken in March in 2012 than for any month except July 1936, going back at least 100 years. Fully 11.3% of all daily high temperature records for the month of March in the U.S. are now held by the year 2012, for the 550 stations in NOAA's National Climatic Data Center database that have weather records extending back at least 100 years. The only month in U.S. history holding a higher percentage of daily temperatures records is July 1936. That month holds 14.4% of all the U.S. high temperature records for the month of July. That month occurred in the great Dust Bowl summer of 1936, the hottest summer in U.S. history.



Summer in March 2012: records not merely smashed, but obliterated
Among the 15,000 daily records for warmth set in March 2012 were 21 truly astonishing ones: cases where the low temperature for the day beat the previous high temperature for the day. It is quite rare for a weather station with a 50+ year period of record to break a daily temperature record by more than 10°F. During "Summer in March, 2012", beating daily records by 10° - 20°F was commonplace, and NOAA lists 44 cases where a daily record was broken by more than 22°F. Extraordinarily, four stations broke a record for the date by 30°F or more. Canada holds the most surreal record of this nature during the "Summer in March, 2012" heat wave: Western Head, Nova Scotia hit 29.2°C (85°F) on March 22, breaking their previous record for the date (10.6°C in 1969) by 18.6°C (33.5°F.) Canada also had several stations break their all-time warmest April temperature records in March.



Last 3 months and 12 months were the warmest on record
The previous 12-month period (April 2011 -March 2012), which includes the second hottest summer (June-August) and fourth warmest winter (December-February), was the warmest such period for the contiguous United States. The year-to-date period (January - March) was also the warmest on record. NOAA's U.S. Climate Extremes Index, an index that tracks the highest 10 percent and lowest 10 percent of extremes in temperature, precipitation, and drought, was 39 percent, nearly twice the long-term average and the highest value on record for the January - March period. The predominant factor was the large area experiencing extremes in warm daily maximum and minimum temperatures.

Analyzing the "Summer in March, 2012" heat wave
Dr. Martin Hoerling of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder has posted a thorough analysis of the heat wave, which he calls, "Meteorological March Madness 2012". He explains that the event was probably a natural phenomenon, one that was predicted more than a month in advance by NOAA's long-range CFS model. A similar, though not as intense heat wave occurred in March 1910. However, he notes that the approximate 0.5 - 1°C warming in the Ohio Valley/Midwest U.S. in recent decades--due to human-caused emission of heat trapping gases like carbon dioxide--has significantly increased the odds of major heat waves occurring. He speculates that the odds of a 1-in-40 year heat wave in the Midwest may have increased by about 50% due to human-caused global warming, but that we really don't know how much global warming may have increased the odds of the March 2012 heat wave, saying "This issue of estimating reliable statistics of extreme, rare events continues to be a matter of active research." He estimates that human-caused global warming likely increased the intensity of the March 12 - 23, 2012 heat wave by about 5 - 10%, and concludes by saying, "The probability of heatwaves is growing as [human-caused] warming continues to progress. But there is always the randomness."

Jeff Masters

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Quoting dabirds:
Got lucky w/ the freeze (@ my place @ least) here in S Central IL, got little frost maybe in town, sure countryside had it, but only 31-32 for lows, no hard freeze thankfully. However, now calling for another warning tomorrow morning though. How'd it do to N & E ILwthr?


We did very well up here had decent breezes all night. We had a low of 30.8 F and it was at an elevated 1.5 meters off the ground. There was VERY little if any patchy frost here and what was, was mainly on the roof tops of cars. Nothing on the plants that was noticeable to the eye.

Tonight will be the same scenario more than likely unless those breezes die down overnight. I am looking forward to a good soaking rain this weekend. Grass was already turning yellow a couple of days ago. We are 3-5 inches below average season to date. Not good.
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Quoting jeffs713:

Absolutely. I wasn't trying to deter awareness to the fact that we are at just as much risk as other areas. As a matter of fact, the Cascadia fault zone is at high risk for a major quake. That area not only has a history of major quakes (as it sits on a subduction zone), but it also has a history of large tsunami, too. Add that in with Mt. Rainier sitting over the Seattle-Tacoma area, and the NW coast is at risk for lots of disasters.

Heck, just going through seismic and earth related risks, we have quite a few risk zones.

1. Cascadia fault zone, for reasons I described above.
2. The New Madrid fault zone - its pushing its normal cycle for quakes, and is becoming more densely populated
3. Alaska sits on a major subduction zone.
4. San Francisco sits on a pile of jello that straddles a major fault complex.
5. The entire Los Angeles Basin is in a similar situation as San Francisco, but even more densely populated.
6. Hawaii, due to its unique position in the middle of the Pacific, can get tsunami waves from anywhere on the "ring of fire".
7. Alaska also has active volcanoes, any one of which can let loose a nasty ash cloud.
8. The entire Pacific and Atlantic coasts are at risk for a tsunami wave (more so on the Pacific coast based on history, but both are at risk)
9. Yellowstone, as a "supervolcano" can theoretically let loose at any time in an eruption that would make Mt. St. Helens look like a sneeze.


Side note: there are actually 3 super volcanoes in north America
Yellow stone and long valley caldera are in the us and called calderes is in Mexico.

Second I believe though that in the east Atlantic there is an island that if it were to have half of the islan slide off like we think ot soon will, would throw a wave out one mile high but by the time it got to the us, it would only be like 50 feet, still would cause massive damage to the coastal cities I.e. new York and miami.
Member Since: June 17, 2011 Posts: 11 Comments: 6539
This is funny:
White House Says North Korea Should 'Go to Weather.com
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9731

Quoting MAweatherboy1:

That's not very fitting then considering it's about the least prone area to earthquakes in the country
Nineteen earthquakes,
intensity V or greater, have
centered in Massachusetts. A number
of other earthquakes were centered
off the coast of Massachusetts
and affected the eastern portion of
the State. A shock in 1755 reached
intensity VIII at Boston and was
felt across the State. In addition,
Massachusetts was affected by some
of the more severe Canadian shocks
plus the earthquake of 1929 that
centered on Grand Banks of Newfoundland.


Strong earthquakes in the St.
Lawrence Valley in 1638, 1661,
1663, and 1732 were felt in Massachusetts.
The 1638 and 1663 shocks
damaged chimneys at Plymouth,
Salem, and Lynn. On June 11,
1643, Newbury, Massachusetts, was strongly
shaken. Again in 1727 (November 9)
an earthquake described as "tremendous"
in one report and "violent"
in another caused much damage
at Newbury. The shock was felt
from the Keenebec River to the Delaware
River and from ships at sea to the
extreme western settlements. Several
strong aftershocks were reported
from the area through February
1728.


Eastern Massachusetts was shaken
moderately on February 17, 1737,
and June 24, 1741. Then on June 14,
1744, large numbers of bricks
were shaken from tops of chimneys
at Boston and other towns and
stone walls were shaken down.
Many persons in Newbury and
Ipswich were alarmed. The earthquake
was reported felt severely at
Falmouth, Maine.


On
November 18, 1755
, one of
the most significant earthquakes in
the northeastern region occurred off
Cape Ann. At Boston walls and
chimneys were thrown down and
stone fences were knocked down
(intensity VIII,

Modified Mercalli
scale). Some descriptions mentioned
violent movement of the ground,
like waves of the sea, making it
necessary to cling to something to
prevent being thrown to the ground.
At Pembroke and Scituate small
chasms opened in the earth through
which fine sand reached the surface.
Large numbers of fish were killed
and many people on vessels felt
shocks as if the ships were striking
bottom. This earthquake was felt
from Lake George, New York, to a point
at sea 200 miles east of Cape Ann,
and from Chesapeake Bay to the
Annapolis River, Nova Scotia, about
300,000 square miles. Reports of a
seismic sea wave reaching the West Indies
following the earthquake
appear to be erroneous. A tsunami
had occurred in the West Indies on
November 1, 1755, following the
great Lisbon earthquake, which
apparently led to a report of its
association with the Cape Ann earthquake.
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hey umm does anyone have a map that shows where the polar and sub-tropical jet are now if so can you post it
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SpaceX proposes Texas site for future rocket launches


Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9630
Quoting fireflymom:
Jeffs547 also noted that Massachusetts is a Native American word meaning  shaking ground.

That's not very fitting then considering it's about the least prone area to earthquakes in the country
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7839
Jeffs547 also noted that Massachusetts is a Native American word meaning  shaking ground.
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:


aftershock party for next 24hrs


That whole rim is active! We could be leading up to a mega quake in the coming years if this keeps.
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Quoting BahaHurican:
I'm wondering now about the impacts of the radiation from Japan's disaster. Has it impacted our weather patterns in the short term?

Anyway, I'm out. I may check in on my Acer later, but I think I'm just going to bed.


None really. If enough radioactive dust is thrown into the atmosphere it can affect the weather (nuclear winter), but that is due to the fact of solar occlusion, not radiation.
Member Since: October 31, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1495
well... if 30 meters then we're talking hollywood... but 30 feet is no biggie in some places ;)
edit: though i do believe in the 60ft breakers are well away from shore, though viewing distance.. thinking some Hawaiian islands and Australia
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Quoting Xyrus2000:


Rock and roll?

I kid, I kid. But if the building is up to code then there shouldn't be much to worry about except in the case of really powerful tornadoes. Tall buildings are built out of concrete and steel and can take quite a beating.

That being said, you might want to move into the stairwells to avoid flying debris.
actually in a highrise during a ef4 or greater event as storm approaches windows will be blown in and items inside would be stripped and sucked out windows then as storm passes the other side would explode outwards and items would be sucked out it would be best to leave the unit and go to the hallwall area closing the door behind you before it hits also head to stairway for more safer protection and remain there till you hear the storm no more
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54434
Watching youtube videos of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami and the 2011 Japan tsunami should become REQUIRED curriculum in like 7th or 8th grade science classes, and again in Physics class in high school.



Unfortunately, whoever edited the original video put some questionable comments in there at the beginning, but this shows just how explosive the power of the 2004 event really was, as they caught many videos from different parts of the tsunami and put the best in there.
Member Since: January 25, 2012 Posts: 33 Comments: 1520
Quoting RTSplayer:


It actually depends on the topography.

there are different types of tsunamis, and the waves will be altered in different ways depending on the sea floor and the shapes of bays and stuff.

Tsunami waves CAN rise up and "break" just like wind driven waves in some cases, for example if it goes over a small peninsula or reef, it will shoot up and produce very tall breakers.

On the other hand, some tsunamis in some locations can just run up on shore as a long wave "training effect", much like a river just flowing until it runs out of momentum from gravity and friction (which cane take a very long time as we saw in Japan last year).


Some of each of these types of tsunami waves were caught on video in the 2004 tsunami.

You are right on that. But... based on that picture, the "wave" is breaking at something easily approaching 30+ feet... which is completely unrealistic (especially with the topography of the west coast), outside of a major meteor strike in the Pacific.... in which case you have bigger issues to be concerned with.
Member Since: August 3, 2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5885
Quoting MahFL:
The main problem with tsunami is the long wave length, often 1 km or more, so the wave comes ashore, but keeps on going for 1km or more inland. Often followed by a few more waves that complete the destruction.

Yep. Combine that with the nature of ocean waves (and how they batter solid objects), and you can get some serious destruction, as we saw in Japan last year.
Member Since: August 3, 2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5885
Quoting BahaHurican:
All u guys are posting to me makes it even more frightening that there were people in cars when that thing came through. That is definitely not a "Dorothy in Oz" moment...

So what does one do if caught in a skyscraper during a tornado?



Rock and roll?

I kid, I kid. But if the building is up to code then there shouldn't be much to worry about except in the case of really powerful tornadoes. Tall buildings are built out of concrete and steel and can take quite a beating.

That being said, you might want to move into the stairwells to avoid flying debris.
Member Since: October 31, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1495
Quoting jeffs713:

You do realize that tsunami waves don't come in like that, outside of hollywood, right? A 10-foot wave (which is pretty big for a tsunami) would actually come in over several minutes, as a series of regular ocean waves that doesn't recede much between waves.


It actually depends on the topography.

there are different types of tsunamis, and the waves will be altered in different ways depending on the sea floor and the shapes of bays and stuff.

Tsunami waves CAN rise up and "break" just like wind driven waves in some cases, for example if it goes over a small peninsula or reef, it will shoot up and produce very tall breakers.

On the other hand, some tsunamis in some locations can just run up on shore as a long wave "training effect", much like a river just flowing until it runs out of momentum from gravity and friction (which cane take a very long time as we saw in Japan last year).


Some of each of these types of tsunami waves were caught on video in the 2004 tsunami.
Member Since: January 25, 2012 Posts: 33 Comments: 1520
Quoting fireflymom:
Eventually it will be our country's turn for a big Earthquake,  perhaps Alaska, N.W Coast or Mississippi drainage area a reminder to be prepared for any disaster.


Absolutely. I wasn't trying to deter awareness to the fact that we are at just as much risk as other areas. As a matter of fact, the Cascadia fault zone is at high risk for a major quake. That area not only has a history of major quakes (as it sits on a subduction zone), but it also has a history of large tsunami, too. Add that in with Mt. Rainier sitting over the Seattle-Tacoma area, and the NW coast is at risk for lots of disasters.

Heck, just going through seismic and earth related risks, we have quite a few risk zones.

1. Cascadia fault zone, for reasons I described above.
2. The New Madrid fault zone - its pushing its normal cycle for quakes, and is becoming more densely populated
3. Alaska sits on a major subduction zone.
4. San Francisco sits on a pile of jello that straddles a major fault complex.
5. The entire Los Angeles Basin is in a similar situation as San Francisco, but even more densely populated.
6. Hawaii, due to its unique position in the middle of the Pacific, can get tsunami waves from anywhere on the "ring of fire".
7. Alaska also has active volcanoes, any one of which can let loose a nasty ash cloud.
8. The entire Pacific and Atlantic coasts are at risk for a tsunami wave (more so on the Pacific coast based on history, but both are at risk)
9. Yellowstone, as a "supervolcano" can theoretically let loose at any time in an eruption that would make Mt. St. Helens look like a sneeze.
Member Since: August 3, 2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5885
Got lucky w/ the freeze (@ my place @ least) here in S Central IL, got little frost maybe in town, sure countryside had it, but only 31-32 for lows, no hard freeze thankfully. However, now calling for another warning tomorrow morning though. How'd it do to N & E ILwthr?
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From Henry Margusity:

I will be looking at the increasing tornado threat in the Plains through Sunday. Looks like things could get wild.
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15683
544. MahFL
The main problem with tsunami is the long wave length, often 1 km or more, so the wave comes ashore, but keeps on going for 1km or more inland. Often followed by a few more waves that complete the destruction.
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543. VR46L
Quoting Minnemike:
does he survive?


nope sigh
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Quoting Minnemike:
does he survive?
maybe in another place another time
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54434
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
an alien from mars with an exploding brain
does he survive?
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Eventually it will be our country's turn for a big Earthquake,  perhaps Alaska, N.W Coast or Mississippi drainage area a reminder to be prepared for any disaster.
Quoting jeffs713:

You do realize that tsunami waves don't come in like that, outside of hollywood, right? A 10-foot wave (which is pretty big for a tsunami) would actually come in over several minutes, as a series of regular ocean waves that doesn't recede much between waves.

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tomorrow could have a few tornadoes.
When the SPC mentions helicities specifically, bad things tend to happen.

Also a frost all the way down to Atlanta, and a freeze in NW Georrgia could damage crops.
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9731
Quoting StormTracker2K:
One day we may see something like this in LA,CA or any city along the west coast of the US.




You do realize that tsunami waves don't come in like that, outside of hollywood, right? A 10-foot wave (which is pretty big for a tsunami) would actually come in over several minutes, as a series of regular ocean waves that doesn't recede much between waves.
Member Since: August 3, 2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5885
Completely unreal that Indonesia as yet again been hit with another big quake.





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Quoting StormTracker2K:


What the heck is that!
an alien from mars with an exploding brain
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54434
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:


aftershock party for next 24hrs

We'll probably see at least one more 7+
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7839
The SPC has added a 5% tornado risk for today in its new outlook

Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7839


aftershock party for next 24hrs
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54434
The 7 day ratio for hot records vs cold records fell to below 2 for the first time in what must be...months?

Yesterday's daily ratio was still 4.4 to 1 hot vs cold though.
Member Since: January 25, 2012 Posts: 33 Comments: 1520
Quoting aquak9:



What the heck is that!
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Getting 35 to 45dbz reflectivity from the wildfire in Florida today.

In fact, there was a return in the 50's less than an hour ago, but I can't tell whether that was the fire or something else...maybe it was an aircraft fighting the fire...

I figure that things out of control.
Member Since: January 25, 2012 Posts: 33 Comments: 1520
The tsunami watch is cancelled

EVALUATION

A SIGNIFICANT TSUNAMI WAS GENERATED BY THIS EARTHQUAKE.
HOWEVER...SEA LEVEL READINGS NOW INDICATE THAT THE THREAT HAS
DIMINISHED OR IS OVER FOR MOST AREAS. THEREFORE THE TSUNAMI
WATCH ISSUED BY THIS CENTER IS NOW CANCELLED.


FOR ANY AFFECTED AREAS - WHEN NO MAJOR WAVES HAVE OCCURRED FOR AT
LEAST TWO HOURS AFTER THE ESTIMATED ARRIVAL TIME OR DAMAGING WAVES
HAVE NOT OCCURRED FOR AT LEAST TWO HOURS THEN LOCAL AUTHORITIES
CAN ASSUME THE THREAT IS PASSED. DANGER TO BOATS AND COASTAL
STRUCTURES CAN CONTINUE FOR SEVERAL HOURS DUE TO RAPID CURRENTS.
AS LOCAL CONDITIONS CAN CAUSE A WIDE VARIATION IN TSUNAMI WAVE
ACTION THE ALL CLEAR DETERMINATION MUST BE MADE BY LOCAL
AUTHORITIES.

THIS WILL BE THE FINAL BULLETIN ISSUED BY THE PACIFIC TSUNAMI
WARNING CENTER FOR THIS EVENT UNLESS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
BECOMES AVAILABLE.


THE JAPAN METEOROLOGICAL AGENCY MAY ISSUE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
FOR THIS EVENT. IN THE CASE OF CONFLICTING INFORMATION...THE
MORE CONSERVATIVE INFORMATION SHOULD BE USED FOR SAFETY.

Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7839
Quoting RTSplayer:


Not even a hundredth of an inch for fire and drought affected south eastern states.

Now that's messed up. It's April for goodness sake.


There maybe some hope this time next week but that's a ways out and alot can change:(

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525. MahFL
Quoting Jax82:
Bone dry for the Southeast the next 5 days. No fire relief in sight either. However its great beach weather :-)



Except the sun will burn you to a crisp in 15 mins....and give you skin cancer.
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Jakarta, Indonesia (CNN) -- A massive earthquake struck off the coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra on Wednesday afternoon, triggering a tsunami alert for the Indian Ocean.

The quake struck about 434 kilometers (270 miles) southwest of Banda Aceh, the capital of Indonesia's Aceh province, and had a magnitude of 8.6, the U.S. Geological Survey said. It took place at a depth of 23 kilometers (14 miles).

A second quake, magnitude 8.2, occurred off the west coast of Sumatra about two hours later, the USGS said.

Gary Gibson from the Seismology Research Center in Melbourne, Australia, said the location of the second quake reduces the possibility of a tsunami.

There were no immediate reports of destruction or deaths Wednesday.

Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono said on local television that there were no reports of casualties or damage in Aceh.

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami watch for the entire Indian Ocean, and the Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency said it had put up a tsunami warning as well.

Sea level readings indicate a tsunami was generated, the warning center said. "It may already have been destructive along some coasts."

How are earthquake's measured?

The center also said that "when no major waves have occurred for at least two hours after the estimated arrival time or damaging waves have not occurred for at least two hours, then local authorities can assume the threat is passed." The center posted approximate arrival times for waves in different parts of the region, which were predicted for different times in different cities throughout the day.

Waves were reported at 1-meter (3.3-foot) amplitude offshore in Meulaboh, Indonesia, but in other cities they were reported at about a foot or less, according to the warning center.

British Prime Minister David Cameron announced that Britain "stands ready to help if required."

The first quake took place at 2:38 p.m. local time (4:38 a.m. ET).

Officials called on coastal residents in low-lying areas in the region to seek higher ground.

The power went out in Banda Aceh and residents were moving to higher ground, said Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, a spokesman for the Indonesian National Disaster Management Agency.

The areas most at risk of a tsunami are coastal areas of Aceh, particularly the island of Simeulue, Prih Harjadi, an official for the Indonesian geophysics agency said on Metro TV.

The earthquake appears to have involved a horizontal movement rather than a vertical movement, so it is less likely that it will generate a tsunami, Gibson said.

He also said that the tremor took place a long way offshore and was therefore unlikely to have caused much damage itself
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Quoting Jax82:
Bone dry for the Southeast the next 5 days. No fire relief in sight either. However its great beach weather :-)



Not even a hundredth of an inch for fire and drought affected south eastern states.

Now that's messed up. It's April for goodness sake.
Member Since: January 25, 2012 Posts: 33 Comments: 1520
522. VR46L
Quoting CaicosRetiredSailor:
...meanwhile over at de Bunker



Hmmm while there is a massive news event going on thats all you can think of
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521. Jax82
Bone dry for the Southeast the next 5 days. No fire relief in sight either. However its great beach weather :-)

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The GFS and MRF are together in killing the trough and lifting it out the the great lakes, with a nasty jet streak over, Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska.

The ECMWF and the CMC are together in moving a trough/low with a moderate jet streak into the SE us

I rooting for the ECMWF, but the GFS has outperformed so far this year.
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9731

Buoy off Indonesia



Buoy in Bay of Bengal
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PTWC has issued a new bulletin... The watch has been significantly reduced but is still in effect for a few areas... No tsunami waves larger than 3.5 feet have been recorded
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7839
Quoting StormTracker2K:


A tsunami can travel at well over 970 kph (600 mph) in the open ocean - as fast as a jet flies. It can take only a few hours for a tsunami to travel across an entire ocean. A regular wave (generated by the wind) travels at up to about 90 km/hr

Not 50mph.


They don't move that fast on shore.

they slow down to several dozen miles per hour in most cases due to the topography.

Doesn't matter anyway, because the report was false.
Member Since: January 25, 2012 Posts: 33 Comments: 1520

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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