Part 3 of the paper story blog.

By: Proserpina , 6:31 PM GMT on July 06, 2012

olympics 2012 london Pictures, Images and Photos

Paper Part 3

Can you imagine a world without paper?

How many pounds of paper per year does each person in the USA use? How many books are read per year? How about newspapers? Look around your house and see how many things are made from paper. Yes, from your toilet paper to your paper money, paper is a necessity. You say that computers are creating a non-paper society, really? In actuality, we now generate more paper than ever before because of computers!

Paper is considered one of the most important inventions of all times. It allowed countries to develop and advance their civilization. For example, an important cultural advancement was the Renaissance Era which would not have occurred without the introduction of paper and the printing press. Also the lower cost of printing books on paper and their availability, stimulated the foundation of new schools and universities. Education which had been restricted to the nobility and upper classes, was now possible for other classes.

Where and when was paper invented?

Paper as we know it has its roots in China. Although recent findings put the invention of paper long before 105 AD, this is the date recognized for the invention of paper. Chinese records name Ts’ai –Lun, from Lei-yang in China, as the inventor of the modern method of making paper. He used rags and other plant fibers, fixed a recipe for paper-making, and refined and popularized paper as a material for writing.

paper early chinese
Sample of early paper in China

papermaking  chinese stamp
Stamp showing paper-making in ancient China

The knowledge of paper-making stayed within China for several hundred years before it reached Korea and Japan around 6oo A.D. The manufacture of paper was kept a closely guarded secret until 750 when it reached Samarkand via the silk and trade routes. It is believed that Chinese paper-makers were taken in battle and were forced to share their craft with their captors. From this point the craft spread throughout the Arab regions, to Baghdad in 793, Damascus and Egypt in the 10th century, and Morocco by 1100.

Paper making reached Europe with the coming of the Arabs. Manufacturing of paper began in the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily. Around the year 1151 the first paper mill in Europe was built in the city of Xativa (in Valencia), Spain. From there, paper-making spread to Italy where the Fabriano paper mills were established in the 13th century (not controlled by Arabs). France, Germany, and other countries followed in the establishment of paper mills. The first paper mill set up in England was in 1490 by John Tate, near Stevenage in Hertfordshire. The first known successful mill in England was set up in Dartford in Kent, in 1588.

The oldest known paper document in the West is the Mozarab Missal of Silos, from the 11th century. Probably it used paper made in the Arab part of the Iberian Peninsula.

The earliest extant European document on paper manufactured in Europe is an order written in Greek and Arabic issued by Adelasia del Vasto in 1109 (Do you remember my Adelasia blog?). The order, which is preserved in the State Archives at Palermo, concerns a salt mine near Castrogiovanni (today Enna). This document was written on paper and not parchment because it wasn’t an ‘important’ document! Microscopic analysis shows that the paper is made from linen cellulose.

Earliest extant European document, order by Alelasia

What’s paper made of? Trees or wood you say? Yes, but not until mid-1800s.

As mentioned, Ts’ai-Lun made his paper from rags and plant fibers. He produced paper sheets from bark of mulberry trees, hemp waste, old rags, and fishnets. The Chinese method of producing paper was adopted and improved by other cultures, but the basic materials to make paper remained the recycled fibers from used textiles, called rags.

The improvement of the difficult process of making paper was completed in the early Middle Ages in the town of Fabriano (province of Ancona), Italy. Rudiments of the early buildings and inscriptions still exist.

Fabriano made high quality paper on an industrial scale and even today has a reputation for fine watermarked paper. Oh yes, Fabriano still produces paper! I often use their fine watercolor paper for my paintings.

The three major innovations that made Fabriano the cradle of modern paper-making are:

“1) Use of animal gelatin to surface size the paper,

2) Invention of a hydraulic press to work the pulp, to replace what were effectively manual pestle and mortars.

3) Watermark technique, a brass wire motif is stitched onto the sieve plate of the cylinder press. The fibres are less dense at this point so more light can pass through the paper. Each paper has its own unique watermark.”

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Existing remnants of original Fabriano paper mill.

For a virtual tour of the Fabriano museum including a video making paper in the old fashioned way please go to:

Gutenberg and his printing press

In 1448 Johannes Gutenberg was credited with inventing the printing press (it is believed that moveable type was invented hundreds of years earlier in Asia). Gutenberg used paper instead of parchment to do the first printing in Europe!

When Gutenberg produced his first Bible around 1456, Europe was still using parchment and so he printed a few Bibles on parchment. For each Bible on parchment he needed 300 sheep! Certainly mass production of books on parchment was not advisable but paper made from linen rags was a solution.

Documents and books could now be reproduced quickly and in large quantities. It was around this time that Gutenberg began his Bible project, the printing of 200 copies of the Gutenberg Bibles. They were all sold at the 1455 Frankfurt Fair. About 50 of these Bibles survive today.

gutenberg bible
One of the Gutenberg Bibles

Booksellers in the Middle Ages rarely had ready-made books in their shop. Usually a book would be ordered, after the order the book would be copied by hand, to be picked up by the buyer several months later. By using paper Gutenberg was able to easily print many copies of the same book, the first mass production of books in history was on its way.

Imagine the disbelief and confusion when someone offered for sale many copies of the same book! There is a story about Gutenberg’s partner that when he offered 20 identical copies of the Bible to a bookseller in Paris, he was forced to quickly flee for his life! People were certain that the only explanation for this occurrence was that the man was in league with the devil!

Within decades there were many printing shops set up in many cities in Central, Western, and Eastern Europe. Italy, a center of early printing, established print shops in 77 cities by 1500. Many printing centers emerged in Italy with Venice as a major printing center. One major early Venetian printer of classic books was Aldus Manutius.

A few notes of interest:

1.Increased demand for rags created a huge shortage and as a result there actually were “rag wars” during the 1700s! Nations passed laws forbidding rags to be taken out of the country! As expected rag smuggling became a lucrative business! To save cotton and linen rags, England even decreed that the dead could be buried only in wool. Of course the wool industry was probably also protecting its weakening industry.

2.China was not the only culture that developed paper as we know it today, there were other cultures who had invented similar papers. The Mayan culture was one of those cultures that had invented paper. In fact there were many books in existence at the time of the Spanish conquest of Yucatan, in the 16th century. Unfortunately in the effort to spread the Christian religion, in 1562 Bishop Diego de Landa ordered that the books be destroyed.

The Maya codices are folding books stemming from the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, written in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican bark cloth. A few of the Myan books were saved from destruction and were brought to Europe.

Today there are three codices whose authenticity is beyond doubt. The codices are named after the City where they are located. They are:

The Madrid Codex (112 pages)
The Dresden Codex (74 pages) T
The Paris Codex (22 pages).

A page from the Dresden Codex

Do you know which city is called The Paper City? The answer will be found in the 4th and hopefully last section of the paper blog!

Locations of Site Visitors

Bee-utiful! (Proserpina)
He loves me, (Proserpina)
he loves me not
He loves me,
Oh Butterfly... (Proserpina) are worth the pain! While taking this photo, I was bitten by two wasps! I am allergic to wasps and at the moment I have two huge red areas on my arm, very swollen, and am in a lot of pain. I am also full of Benadryl, and fully slathered in Aloe Vera, Cortisone, Antibiotic, Solarcane. One of them should work! And it is all worth it for the love of Butterflies!
Oh Butterfly...
Butterfly Pause (Proserpina)
No garden truly blooms until butterflies have danced upon it - K. D'Angelo
Butterfly Pause

The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

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123. aquak9
2:06 PM GMT on July 29, 2012
hi mom, I wish I lived so much closer.
Not because of Trader Joe's, although that would be really nice, too. But because, I would love to do the weeding, would love to watch you knit. I'd love to sit cross-legged on the floor for hours and days, reading all your books in the living room. The cookbooks, too. I'd like to sit and look at all the pictures, and go outside and watch the chipmunks come.

I'd be patient enough to get the bluejays to eat from my hand.

I'd probably make a big mess in your kitchen, but I'd clean it up, too. Then nap upstairs, like a lazy cat. We'd all have coffee later, and I'd steal "Koko's medicine" from the fridge.

Thank you for sending it! SO GOOD!! I can only nibble, and smile at my thievery.

Of course somewhere, there'd be be fresh dark purple grapes. But not for long.

Luckily my imagination runs rampant, enough to give comfort and almost reality. I really love and miss ya'll.
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122. ProudestMonkey
2:03 PM GMT on July 29, 2012
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121. Proserpina
1:49 PM GMT on July 29, 2012
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120. Alleyoops
2:53 PM GMT on July 28, 2012
You asked about my next blog on Buffalo Soldiers. Here is a prelude:

Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 22, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

The nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought; the term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866.
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119. Alleyoops
2:47 PM GMT on July 28, 2012
Good morning PROS. Girl you gotta get some rest or Ylee is going to hire you to work the night shift with him at the plant...LOL

I was up at 4 AM too but just to feed the kitties, watch the rain pour down and make a pot of fresh coffee then off to bed I went and did not get up until almost 10 AM. Had a nice hot shower and now feel like doing something productive. I did not get to sleep until around 2 AM so the couple of hours before I got up to feed the babies, was just a short nap for me. One good thing about sleeping late in the morning. No afternoon or early evening naps are required. I at least now can have a full day before I need to snooze.

Try to get some rest dear one. Don't overdo things today. Will chat soon. BIG HUGS
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118. Ylee
2:41 AM GMT on July 28, 2012
"This morning I heard in the news that Houston is the number one spot where people are happy! DC is the second! Happy about what?"

I don't know why, but that struck me as funny!! :))

I have cookbooks and cooking magazines, too, but all I do is just read them. I think I like learning the techniques involved in making the dish more than the dish itself!

Hope you are enjoying the opening ceremonies!
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117. Alleyoops
2:12 AM GMT on July 28, 2012
Hi PROS. We got a little more rain this afternoon and it was cooler as well with temps only reaching 80 here today. Tomorrow will start out cool too but will warm up to around the same temps again, just without the rain. God willing, I will try to get out in the AM to cut the grass. Just depends on how I feel. If I am feeling anything like this morning, it won't get cut...LOL

Well I better get off this thing now, enjoy your Olympics celebration. Talk with ya soon.
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116. Proserpina
3:31 PM GMT on July 27, 2012
Hi Sandi, well, I am a diehard Olympic fan! I will be watching, God willing,all of it but I always knit, crotchet, do a crossword puzzle,..... Otherwise I would find it intolerable sitting and doing nothing. I hope you will give us a minute by minute updates as you did for the Queen's Jubilee. I enjoyed that a lot.

GG, I bet you look great with your haircut, color, and perky personality. I seldom like my haircut the first few weeks but as it grows a little longer I am generally happy with the cut. I need to make an appointment for myself and for Koko! We both look pretty bad!
In my area, we have not had any storms, no rain, just hot and humid. I have been outside this morning watering a few spots and now I have two hoses set up to water flower beds in front and back of the house. Should it rain, it will be an added plus!
This morning I heard in the news that Houston is the number one spot where people are happy! DC is the second! Happy about what?

Janetlee, there was a time when my husband loved everything that I cooked. Now he is finicky about his eating! At times he prefers a sandwich instead of a stew or a slow cooked meal. He likes the meals that take tons of time and effort to prepare! Well, I no longer slave in the kitchen, not often anyways. I used to have a huge collection of cookbooks, international cuisine. I took many cooking courses when I was much younger and tried all of those recipes on family and friends. Usually they were a success but there was one time when we all were grossed out by a chicken mole! Even the dog (not Koko) refused to eat it!

Bug, glad that you too like to look at food photos and read recipes. For me it is a vicarious 'cooking experience'. I still subscribe to cooking magazines and now and then buy a cookbook. After a while I give the books and magazines to charities.

Have a good day everyone.
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115. sandiquiz
2:33 PM GMT on July 27, 2012
Thanks for dropping by my blog - you and half the nation think DB will light the flag, but many will be annoyed if he does! lol

We will just have to wait and see. There was a rehearsal for the opening last Friday, and so far I have not seen any "spoilers" - all who attended were asked to keep the secrets, and it seems they have done so.

I don't know whether I will watch it all, I might dip in and out, as I get bored easily!! lol
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114. GardenGrrl
2:04 PM GMT on July 27, 2012
Hey, are you being affected by the storm outbreak? We had some magnificent cumulus clouds start to tower up into storm clouds yesterday...then broke apart. Was cool watching it try to form.
Got my hair cut and colored with highlights yesterday. The color looks nice, very subtle and natural looking but the sides are too short so the curl is gone. Might like it better in a month as it grows out.
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113. janetlee
6:42 PM GMT on July 26, 2012
I see you have had a very busy morning also. And a Heat advisory. We do also here. In fact I noticed when I logged on it said it was 121* w/heat indice. Much too hot for man or beast.
I like cook books also but do not collect many of them now. I usually watch the cooking shows the find the recipe or just look for something different online. I do more expermental recipes now than I did in the past when cooking for the whole family. Max usually likes everything I do. I can not think of any right now that did not go over very well.
I hope you are all propped up with a very large glass of waer right now.

Oh, I answered your fish ? in my blog but I'll do it here also. No, we do not eat the fish, we catch & release except for the gkids. They get to eat their catch.
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112. palmettobug53
4:56 PM GMT on July 26, 2012

I love to read cookbooks but I seldom use the recipes.

I'm glad I'm not the only one.
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111. Proserpina
4:13 PM GMT on July 26, 2012
Hi Sandi, I tried to beat the heat by going grocery shopping early this morning. Three hours later I came home and my husband was about to send the search party out! I explained that these days it takes me these many hours to do a full shopping trip. I have put away all of the perishables and the rest is sitting in bags to be put away when I get a little energy back. So, no Sandi, I am not sick, just tired from the shopping/carting food to the car/carting it inside the house. Yes, hubby did help to bring in the groceries from the car to the kitchen.

The yard needs a tremendous amount of weeding, clipping, etc. This is the first year that I have had to let my garden go wild! I am sad but what can I do? My back and other problems do not permit me to keep up with the demands of yard upkeep. If I can figure out who to call, I will try to find someone who will do 'menial' yard work such as weeding.

Yes, we are under weather alerts, warnings, watches for heat and for storms. I did read the Dr's blog and indeed the area is on the lookout for severe weather, including derecho like activity. We'll see. There were some storms this morning North of us, we did not have any storm activity in my area.

I do hope and pray that the Opening will go smoothly! I want the weather to behave, and I want the people to understand that while the Olympics are on, there are some adjustments to be made. That's a known fact when we aspire to be the Nation that gets the Olympics. I am saying this because our news has been interviewing people in London who are bitterly complaining about the traffic and the lane that will be used for Olympic purposes. As we say, DUH! Of course, it is part of the deal. Ok, I must be tired or I would have kept my thoughts to myself! Yup, I blame the tiredness for my lack of tact.

Shore, you are dealing with red ants? Are you the red ant? You will let me know when you have a few minutes, I know. So, see you then.

Ylee, I wish that I could manufacture a few free hours for you. We all need the rest, regardless our age. Most of my life I was whirlwind of activities on any given day and night. Now, it is imperative that I take time to just rest my body and my mind.
Is it hot there today? I guess I need to look at your temps.

Time to sit back and look at the new cookbook I just bought. I no longer try many new recipes(nor old ones) but I do like to look at the photos and read the recipes! Why? Who knows! Have a lovely afternoon everyone and stay healthy and safe.
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110. Proserpina
3:54 PM GMT on July 26, 2012

Issue Date: 151 AM EDT THU JUL 26 2012
Expiration: 800 PM EDT THU JUL 26 2012

151 AM EDT THU JUL 26 2012










Issue Date: 426 PM EDT WED JUL 25 2012
Expiration: 400 PM EDT THU JUL 26 2012


DCZ001-MDZ004-009-013-016>018-VAZ042-052>054-2620 00-
426 PM EDT WED JUL 25 2012


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109. sandiquiz
3:03 PM GMT on July 26, 2012
Hi Pros - not seen you around today - hope you are just busy!

Had a good few days, with plenty of sunshine. It looks like the spell of warmth might break tomorrow, with thunder storms over London. I do hope not for the opening ceremony, as it is "out door"!

Reading the Dr's blog I am wondering if you are having stormy weather, and maybe even lost power.
Be safe.
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108. shoreacres
2:29 PM GMT on July 25, 2012
Speaking of red ants, I do have something for you on that front - but now I MUST get to work! Be back this evening. Have a good day!
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107. Ylee
9:15 AM GMT on July 25, 2012
I am officially jealous of your lazy day! ;-) I could use a couple of those, myself!

Glad you're feeling better!
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106. Proserpina
10:38 PM GMT on July 24, 2012
Hello. I have had a nice lazy day. I did get some chores done, the laundry, the dishes, and similar house chores. Even took Koko for her walk. I also have started to write the 4th section of the paper blog.

Hi Sandi, I just saw in the news a red bus doing push ups? I believe it is in London. I am looking forward to the opening ceremony, I have seen every one of them for as long as I can remember. The weirdest was, in my opinion, the last one from France. Some have been beautiful. Some ostentatious. Some hollywood productions. So what is England going to treat us to?!

Ylee, thank you. I am fine, the sleep I got last night helped a lot.

Patti, what are you doing falling? Thank goodness you did not break a leg or arm or... Are you feeling any pain today?
Yes, I do know who Lidia is, I have watched her cooking show. Her specialty is northern Italian cooking, the area she and her parents are from. She has a well known restaurant in NY. I find her personal story interesting, the part that deals with WWII and the indignities suffered at the hands of the Nazis. She doesn't talk about this phase of her and her family's life. But I am off the food topic. Calabrian cooking is influenced by Greek cooking. The ancient Greeks are a large part of the Calabrian history.

GG, yes, photography has its own dangers. And I seem to enjoy living dangerously! Still, wasps or no wasps, I continue to photograph my flowers. My hobby is habit forming! I guess, we can call it my vice!

Karen, so glad that you came by and read the paper blog. And glad that you liked it. We do keep the 'scraps of paper' that are associated with our children. I still have a couple on notes that my sons wrote to me, the cute little items they made while they were in the elementary schools, a couple of Boy Scouts items, etc. I also have every card and drawing that my grandchildren ever gave me!
The photos you took during your vacation are absolutely gorgeous, I plan to come back to your blog and read what you wrote.

, I had no idea that Scuppernongs are white grapes! I learned something, thank you. And no, I have not eaten Scuppernongs but I have eaten Muscadines. And probably drank Muscadine wine a long time ago before I became a teetotaler.
Our tiny computer, the one we took for our Italy trip, has 7 or 9 hours of juice! It served us well. Is there anything you can do to get more hours power for yours?

Shore, it seems to me that it is a good admonition, and best to remember not to honk at old people! Especially it they are red ants old people! LOL!

Alley, all is well here. The nasty symptoms as a result of the wasp bite are gone. This makes my arm happy!
How are things your way? Are you having decent weather?

I hope that I did not miss anyone who posted in the previous page. Have a wonderful evening everyone.
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105. sandiquiz
6:40 AM GMT on July 24, 2012
Oh, a summer cold is much worse than a winter one I always feel:(

Drink plenty and take care:)
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104. Ylee
3:27 AM GMT on July 24, 2012
Hope you feel better soon!
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103. Proserpina
11:45 PM GMT on July 23, 2012
Hello. If anyone has been wondering where I have been, I have been right here but generally not blogging. I am fine despite my summer flu-like symptoms. As soon as my head clears and goes back to its regular size, I will answer your posts. Take care.
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102. sandiquiz
5:03 PM GMT on July 23, 2012
Hi Pros - I gave myself 30 minutes to rush around WU-ville before I need to get my dinner, and feed a very annoying cat!

Hope you are having a good day!
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101. redagainPatti
4:58 PM GMT on July 23, 2012
Hey darling! Thanks for dropping into my little corner your sweet photos!.. I came back home from camping only to slip in my carport.. think I broke a toe, will see the doctor at 2:00 today just to check it out and teach me how he wants me to wrap it. It is still swelled up this morning and red color. Nothing to be done but be happy it is summer and I can wear loose flip-flops. I was barefoot last night and hit a wet spot in the carport, slipped with my left foot going one way and the other, to the other way.. my left foot ended up slamming into the tire of my car while my knee hit the ground soon afterwards. sigh! .. should had been watching where I placed my feet..
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100. palmettobug53
5:39 PM GMT on July 22, 2012
Oh, Pros! You've never known the joys of eating scuppernongs?

Just about every member of Dad's family has a scuppernong arbor in their yard.

Dad made scuppernong wine for years.

You can probably find some at the grocer's, which does taste almost the same as what Dad made.

Duplin Winery is the one I like best.

White grapes are usually the ones called scuppernongs.

The purple ones are called muscadines.

Gotta go. My battery is almost out. Time to recharge. That two hour battery time sure does fly by fast!
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99. Alleyoops
3:50 PM GMT on July 22, 2012
Good morning PROS....My goodness girl, you know how to get yourself in trouble with Mr Wasp. Nasty things, they are and so glad you are recovering from their stings. Fortunately I have never had a run in with them but my nemesis is Spiders. So I try to avoid any place they may linger. Yes get your doc to issue you an epi pen and keep it handy because you never know what can happen.

Just wanted to say thank you for the lovely butterfly pic you posted on my new blog. Been cleaning out my archives and found that one from 2009 and thought it would be nice to repost it for now.

Slowly I am getting my blog cleaned out of old redundant stuff.

Well time to get something to eat so have a wonderful Sunday dear one. God bless you and yours.
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98. Proserpina
3:28 PM GMT on July 22, 2012
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97. SBKaren
1:30 AM GMT on July 22, 2012
Well, I haven't been around in eons and there is just no excuse for that. I read that you were stung by a wasp? Ouch!

The Aurora shootings are just horrible. I just have to wonder, what makes a person snap like that? I'm sure the whole story has not been told yet.

I'm going to come back and read more about paper! Interesting! I remember, a long time ago, when my oldest daughter was young, I took her Girl Scout troop to this lady that made paper. She did it in her garage. I swear I still have the little piece of paper we made somewhere. I'd have to dig for it!!!
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96. GardenGrrl
3:38 PM GMT on July 21, 2012
Good Morning Prose,
what is about nature photography and gardening? Two rather calm, sedate sounding activities that often rival extreme sports in the injuries we can get.
As for benedryl, that is a miracle cure...or atleast it helps us sleep through the itching.
Nice butterfly. Also really like this set of flower macros.
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95. janetlee
3:08 PM GMT on July 21, 2012
I hope you are all well his morning.

do you ever watch any of the cooking shows on tv? I am now watching Lidia's Italy. She is cooking dishes from the Calabria region today. Looks delicious, I'm ging to have to stop and pay closer attention....
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94. shoreacres
4:11 AM GMT on July 21, 2012
Evening, Pros ~

Don't even ask how I found this or what I was looking for - it made me laugh out loud. I think I found a new red ant for our brigade! Don't mess with old ladies is the lesson here!

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93. Ylee
2:30 AM GMT on July 21, 2012
Ah, Pros, but you can read Italian on those websites! :)

The wasp stung me on the thigh, but thank goodness it wasn't on a worse place, lol!

Glad you're feeling better!
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92. Proserpina
7:12 PM GMT on July 20, 2012
Hi Jus, Janetlee, Ylee, Sandi, Bug, Shore, hello.

I am sure that you all are as heartsick as I am with the horrible crimes committed in Aurora. I cannot comprehend what motivated these people.

Jus, yes, prayers.

, The arm is still itchy and red but I am ok. Thank Goodness that you survived that major attack from the wasps. That must have been a horrible experience. My own mother in her old age was attacked by a swarm of bees, definitely an experience one wants to remember. Oh dear, fire ants are bad news! Please be careful.

Ylee, thank you for posting the historical castle on the island of Ischia. The Castello Aragonese was built as a fort for defense in 474 AD, it was called Castrum Gironis (Castle of Girone). Girone was a Tyrant of Syracuse when Sicily was part of Magna Crecia. In 1441 Alfonso of Aragon had a wooden bridge built, that's how it got the name of Castello Aragonese.
Since the 1970s art exhibits have been held at the castle, some of the artists whose work has been exhibited are DeChirico, Picasso, Dali.
Before you think that I am a know it all, let me tell you that I just looked up the information on an Italian site.

As to the Epi Pen, yes I should get one. I put it on my list of things to discuss with my doctor the next time I see her. And yes, Benadryl or other antihistamine is never far from me.

Ylee, I do not dare ask where the wasps bit you! My goodness, I would be surprised too.

Sandi, you poor thing. Glad that you took the Benadryl. I have read articles that discuss spiders on toilet seats and the unexpected havoc they can cause. I read the article a long time ago and do not remember the specifics. I have the same reaction at the site of the bite, heat emanates from the area. I am sure that there is an explanation for the heat but I do not know what it is.
Yes, Benadryl is underlined in red!

Hi Bug. So you have felt the sting of these nasty little insects! Ugh! I too have red spots and painful feelings at the site of the bite for a long time. Do your remember a few months ago when I had to be treated for tick bites? I still have red spots where the darn things attached themselves! I had two ticks next to each other!

"scuppernong vine" I have no idea what this is, I will have to look it up after I bring Koko downstairs. She is moaning.

Thank you so much for the comments on the Paper blog. Glad that you like the topic. I guess I better get going on the last part of the topic.

Hi Shore, yes the Benadryl helped me sleep last night, and that's a good thing in my case. I do take a Benadryl now and then to help me sleep. I have prescription pills but I do not like to take them as I fear what they might make me do, such as sleepwalking.

Your story of the Coke and wasp that you ingested reminds me of a story that I used to read about one of my aunts. She actually ate a wasp when it flew in in my aunts' mouth as she was picnicking!

Glad that you are enjoying your doves. They are so sweet and loving. The partner of the dove that was seized by the hawk, still comes to the feeder to eat. He/she is so lonely looking! It could be my imagination but I swear that he/she is lonely! I also have a second pair of doves that come to the feeders.

I really think that Koko is the manager of my life! I brought her up to my hideaway while the cleaner were here and now that they have left, she is moaning in an effort to make me bring her downstairs. So here I go to do her bidding!
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91. juslivn
3:59 PM GMT on July 20, 2012
Yes, prayers for all.
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90. janetlee
1:40 PM GMT on July 20, 2012
so very sorry for the wasp sting. I truly feel your pain! I try to always make a wide space between me & them. when I was but a wee child I remember getting into a nest of them while setting on my grandmothers steps. Mother told me she counted over 2 dozen stings on me! Its a wonder it didn't put me into shock actually. the one thing I am allergic to is ant bites of any kind but especially the fire ant. Max on the other hand no side affect whatever.
Hope you feel better soon
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89. Proserpina
1:05 PM GMT on July 20, 2012
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88. Ylee
11:47 AM GMT on July 20, 2012
Pros, while searching for cams, I came across this one of Aragonese castle on the island of Ischia!

The wikipedia article is a little lean, so that's all I know! :)

Have a good day!
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87. sandiquiz
6:17 AM GMT on July 20, 2012
I saw over on Flickr that you had been stung!
You poor dear - but if you are allergic do you not have an 'epi-pen'?

I got bit on Monday when I met my friend for lunch. I was fine when I went in the hotel, visited the ladies room and when I came out I had a bite on my thumb. I have no idea what it was... but took a benadyrl immediately, as I always carry them in my bag, and slathered it with the benadryl cream when I got home. It is still there, but doesn't itch or hurt anymore, although the surrounding area is very warm in comparison to the rest of my hand.

Now there's a word that spellcheck does not like - benadryl - it wants me to change it to 'bendable' or 'Bernadine'! It also doesn't understand slathered. Why not, I ask? It is a good old Yorkshire word! lol
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86. palmettobug53
2:34 AM GMT on July 20, 2012
OUCH! I've been stung by wasps several times over the years. Usually when I was under a scuppernong vine.

The worst sting I've ever gotten was from a yellow jacket. It took days for the hurt and swelling to go away. Oddly enough, I hit my hand a couple of months later, right where I had been stung, and it swelled up again for several days. Truely odd.

Mine were bad enough but I'm not allergic. I can imagine that you're miserable.

I have been enjoying reading about paper, the history and how it's made. It is good to learn about things most of us take for granted.

You make one point I wholeheartedly agree with: computers have NOT made for a paperless society. Though the paper consumption has gone down in our office, to a certain extent, our paper recycling bins fill up by mid week and they only make one pick up - on Fridays. You can always tell when they're in the office: you see people making a beeline for them, with their personal recyling baskets in hand. Full, of course!
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85. Ylee
2:03 AM GMT on July 20, 2012
Pros, I'm sorry you've got stung! As a rural person, I've been stung several times by wasps. One time was when I put on some jeans that had dried out on the clothesline! Needless to say, I was surprised!

I hope you're feeling better!
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84. shoreacres
1:38 AM GMT on July 20, 2012
Oh, dear me! Wasp bites! I don't think I've ever been bitten by one - I surely would remember it - but I have had a bee sting, and that was bad enough. It was doubly bad because It bit me on the lip when I tried to drink it! It had gone into a Coke can to have a drink of sweetness, and I picked up the can and took my own drink! Oh, dear. But Benadryl helped me out, too.

I've been watching a dove outside my window for the past hour. It's happy as can be. It came by for a nice drink or two from the water bowl and then settled in to watch the sunset. The sunset is almost gone now, but pretty dove is still there. It was such a gorgeous sunset - I would have taken a photo, but I didn't want to disturb the bird!

I hope you have a fine sleep. That benadryl should help. My pharmacist told me it's a good over the counter sleep aid, too, for those times when you just want a little help but don't need a real "sleeping pill". Some day I may try it, if I ever come to the point that I can't sleep!
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83. Proserpina
2:59 PM GMT on July 19, 2012
LOL! Sandi, this is too funny! I meant to write night of course but my fingers typed nite. Good thing that nite is a variant of night and the error points out the difficulty with the English language!

Interest first lecture. I have a memorable first lecture in English Literature. The professor was explaining Old English found in Shakespeare. The example? Shite or Schite! I figured out what it meant and was quite shocked, I was just a babe in the woods when I entered college! Imagine what I felt when "Catcher In The Rye" was introduced!

As to my morning adventure, please look above at my Butterfly photo. This is what I wrote to explain my adventure:

Title: Oh Butterfly... (Proserpina) are worth the pain!

"While taking this photo, I was bitten by two wasps! I am allergic to wasps and at the moment I have two huge red areas on my arm, very swollen, and am in a lot of pain. I am also full of Benadryl, and fully slathered in Aloe Vera, Cortisone, Antibiotic, Solarcane. One of them should work! And it is all worth it for the love of Butterflies!"
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82. sandiquiz
2:07 PM GMT on July 19, 2012
I had to smile when I saw this you had posted "Whole-hole; knew-new; knight-nite. Etc, etc."
OR even how about knight and night!

I remember the first English lecture I had at college, the college lecturer wrote the word "tear" on the board and ask us keen trainee teachers to tell him its meaning....
Well, of course, it has two meanings and without it being written in a sentence, not one of us could give him the correct meaning.
He then continued his lecture on how difficult the English language was.

I had a lovely meal last night, and we sat putting the world to rights for well over an hour - not bad for a fast food restaurant! lol
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81. Proserpina
6:44 PM GMT on July 18, 2012
janetlee, absolutely, I and Koko are inside. K wants to go walking but I rule in this house so she is staying in! Well, actually she usually gets her way except when our health is concerned.

Your personal day sounds like fun! It is so important for our mental health to periodically be with people in a social setting.

Temperatures-wise, how are you doing your way?

Hi Sandi, how did your MacD outing go today? Actually it sounds deliciously fun. Unbelievably, one of the fun places that we had a quick bite, on our last trip to Tuscany, was at a MacD alla Italiano! It had a fantastic ice cream bar, yummy.

Thank you for letting me know about your friend leaving a comment on flickr.

Ylee, in my opinion English is one of the hardest languages to master.
Do you think that the following sentences might be a bit confusing to someone trying to learn English? I like to read books; yesterday I read a book.
How about these words that sound the same but have different meanings? Whole-hole; knew-new; knight-nite. Etc, etc.

BC, I came home with two boxes of Frontline. Had I known about Advantage, I would have asked for it. Next time. Thank you for the suggestion.

Patti, I left a short comment on your blog. Great job in assembling the aurora photos and the information given.

My mind and fingers are never in agreement. Besides, given the situation, one works faster than the other. In addition, my aging brain is having problems with proper spelling of certain words. By the way, often WU spell check confuses me periodically, I spell something correctly but it is not good enough for WU. I run to my paper dictionary and sure enough the word is spelled correctly! Aggravating.

Well, stay out of the heat everyone!
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80. janetlee
5:20 PM GMT on July 18, 2012
Quoting Proserpina:
Time: 1:03 PM

Temperatures at my house (on deck): 103.6

I hope you are inside in the cool a/c
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79. Proserpina
5:04 PM GMT on July 18, 2012
Time: 1:03 PM

Temperatures at my house (on deck): 103.6

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78. sandiquiz
12:44 PM GMT on July 18, 2012
I am always checking to make sure I do not write - hte .. or teh INSTEAD of the...

Patti, I have typed teh or thsi so many times that poor old spell-check thinks they are the correct spelling and leaves them as typed!

It isn't that I don't know how to spell, but being self-taught at the keyboard, and always in a hurry, my fingers get confused!!

Pros - following on the conversation I started in my blog re Flickr, I noticed this morning you had a new commenter on your cone flowers.
The person who wrote to you is one of my friends, in fact I am having a meal with her tonight! Nothing special, we are meeting at McDonald's!! lol Actually, the local McD has been made over, and the seating is extremely comfortable for a fast restaurant, so we sit and chatter over a chicken select meal washed down with decent KENKO coffee, followed by a large Cadburys' ice-cream, and maybe another coffee! all for under a six pound!

Hehe - I had to come in and modify this, as I had typed 'Teh person' instead of 'The person'!
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77. Proserpina
11:53 AM GMT on July 18, 2012

Good morning. Here is a sample of this morning's sunrise, taken from my doorway. Yes, it is already hot and uncomfortable and it is going to get much worse before the day is over.
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76. Ylee
8:00 AM GMT on July 18, 2012
Four forms? Sounds complicated, but I'll bet English to one that doesn't know it is complicated as well, for different reasons!

Hope you all keep cool tomorrow!

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75. BriarCraft
11:03 PM GMT on July 17, 2012
I'm glad to learn that Koko is doing well for a little old lady dog and that little growth is nothing to worry about.

My vet recommended Revolution for our cats, but it caused sores that took nearly a month to heal on 4 out of 5 of them. This year, I switched to Advantage II. It doesn't work quite as well, but it's fairly effective and doesn't irritate anyone's skin. I know Frontline, Advantage, and Revolution all have versions for dogs as well as cats, so maybe Advantage might be better for Koko's tender skin.
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74. janetlee
5:16 PM GMT on July 17, 2012
thanks for stopping by earlier.
Tuesday is my personal day. A group of us usually meet over coffee and solve the problems of the world.
Or so we like to think.
Hopefully you are having a very productive art day. I have always envied people who are so talented. My talent used to be my sewing mine & the kids clothing but I do not enjoy that sort of thing any longer. One summer I sewed the 3 (had only the 1 son back then)of us matching jeans. I even made them with the button flap in front. Max was not too happy with that but he wore them anyway! Now most of my stitching is cross stitching and the occasional mending of something.
Hope Koko improving.
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