Global warming and the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes: model results

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:37 PM GMT on April 05, 2010

Share this Blog
7
+

Could global warming increase wind shear over the Atlantic, potentially leading to a decrease in the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes? There is a growing consensus among hurricane scientists that this is indeed quite possible. Two recent studies, by Zhao et al. (2009), "Simulations of Global Hurricane Climatology, Interannual Variability, and Response to Global Warming Using a 50-km Resolution GCM", and by Knutson et al. (2008), "Simulated reduction in Atlantic hurricane frequency under twenty-first-century warming conditions", found that global warming might increase wind shear over the Atlantic by the end of the century, resulting in a decrease in the number of Atlantic hurricanes. For example, the second study took 18 relatively coarse (>60 km grid size) models used to formulate the 2007 IPCC climate report, and "downscaled" them using a higher-resolution (18 km grid size) model called ZETAC that was able to successfully simulate the frequencies of hurricanes over the past 50 years. When the 18 km ZETAC model was driven using the climate conditions we expect in 2100, as output by the 18 IPCC models, the authors found that a reduction of Atlantic tropical storms by 27% and hurricanes by 18% by the end of the century resulted. An important reason that their model predicted a decrease in the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes was due to a predicted increase in wind shear. As I explain in my wind shear tutorial, a large change of wind speed with height over a hurricane creates a shearing force that tends to tear the storm apart. The amount of wind shear is critical in determining whether a hurricane can form or survive.


Figure 1. Top: predicted change by 2100 in wind shear (in meters per second per degree C of warming--multiply by two to get mph) as predicted by summing the predictions of 18 climate models. Bottom: The number of models that predict the effect shown in the top image. The dots show the locations where tropical storms formed between 1981-2005. The box indicates a region of frequent hurricane formation where wind shear is not predicted to change much. Image credit: Geophysical Research Letters, "Increased Tropical Atlantic Wind Shear in Model Projections of Global Warming", by Vecchi and Soden, 2007.

Since the Knutson et al. study using the 18 km resolution ZETAC model was not detailed enough to look at what might happen to major Category 3 and stronger hurricanes, a new study using a higher resolution model was needed. This was done by a team of modelers led by Dr. Morris Bender of NOAA's GFDL laboratory, who published their results in Science in February. The authors used the GFDL hurricane model--the model that has been our best-performing operation hurricane track forecasting model over the past five years--to perform their study. The GFDL hurricane model runs at a resolution of 9 km, which is detailed enough to make accurate simulations of major hurricanes. The researchers did a double downscaling study, where they first took the forecast atmospheric and oceanic conditions at generated by the coarse (>60 km grid) IPCC models, used these data to initialize the finer resolution 18 km ZETAC model, then used the output from the ZETAC model to initialize the high-resolution GFDL hurricane model. The final results of this "double downscaling" study suggest that although the total number of hurricanes is expected to decrease by the end of the century, we should expect an increase of 81% in the number of Category 4 and 5 storms in the Atlantic. This trend should not be clearly detectable until about 60 years from now, given a scenario in which CO2 doubles by 2100. The authors say that their model predicts that there should already have been a 20% increase in the number of Category 4 and 5 storms since the 1940s, given the approximate 0.5°C warming of the tropical Atlantic during that period. This trend is too small to be detectable, given the high natural variability and the difficulty we've had accurately measuring the exact strength of intense hurricanes before the 1980s.The region of the Atlantic expected to see the greatest increase in Category 4 and 5 storms by the year 2100 is over the Bahama Islands (Figure 2), since wind shear is not expected to increase in this region, and sea surface temperatures and atmospheric instability are expected to increase there.

The net effect of a decrease in total number of hurricanes but an increase in the strongest hurricanes should cause an increase in U.S. hurricane damages of about 30% by the end of the century, the authors compute, assuming that hurricane damages behave as they did during the past century. Over the past century, Category 4 and 5 hurricanes made up only 6% of all U.S. landfalls, but accounted for 48% of all U.S. damage (if normalized to account for increases in U.S. population and wealth, Pielke et al., 2008.)


Figure 2. Expected change in Atlantic Category 4 and 5 hurricanes per decade expected by the year 2100, according to the Science paper by Bender et al. (2010).

Commentary
These results seem reasonable, since the models in question have been successfully been able to simulate the behavior of hurricanes over the past 50 years. However, the uncertainties are high and lot more research needs to be done before we can be confident of the results. Not all of the IPCC models predict an increase in wind shear over the tropical Atlantic by 2100, so the increase in Category 4 and 5 hurricanes could be much greater. Also, the GFDL model was observed to under-predict the strength of intense hurricanes in the current climate, so it may not be creating enough Category 4 and 5 hurricanes in the future climate of 2100. On the other hand, IPCC models such as the UKMO-HadCM3 predict a very large increase in wind shear, leading to a drastic reduction in all hurricanes in the Atlantic by 2100, including Category 4 and 5 storms. So Category 4 and 5 hurricane frequency could easily be much greater or much less than the 81% increase by 2100 found by Bender et al.

The estimates of a 30% increase in hurricane damages by 2100 may be considerably too low, since this estimate assumes that sea level rise will continue at the same pace as was observed in the 20th century. Sea level rise has accelerated since the 1990s, and it is likely that this century we will see much more than than the 7 inches of global sea level rise that was observed last century. Higher sea level rise rates will sharply increase the damages due to storm surge, which account for a large amount of the damage from intense Category 4 and 5 hurricanes.

Keep in mind that while a 30% in hurricane damage by the end of the century is significant, this will not be the main reason hurricane damages will increase this century. Hurricane damages are currently doubling every ten years, according to Pielke et al., 2008. This is primarily due to the increasing population along the coast and increased wealth of the population. The authors theorize that the Great Miami Hurricane of 1926, a Category 4 monster that made a direct hit on Miami Beach, would have caused about $150 billion in damage had it hit in 2005. By 2015, the authors expect the same hurricane would do $300 billion in damage. This number would increase to $600 billion by 2025 (though I think it is likely that the recent recession may delay this damage total a few years into the future.) It is essential that we limit coastal development in vulnerable coastal areas, particularly along barrier islands, to reduce some of the astronomical price tags hurricanes are going to be causing. Adoption and enforcement of strict building standards is also a must.

The authors of the GFDL hurricane model study have put together a nice web page with links to the paper and some detailed non-technical explanations of the paper.

References
Bender et al., 2010, "Modeled Impact of Anthropogenic Warming on the Frequency of Intense Atlantic Hurricanes", Science, 22 January 2010: Vol. 327. no. 5964, pp. 454 - 458 DOI: 10.1126/science.1180568.

Vecchi, G.A., B.J. Soden, A.T. Wittenberg, I.M. Held, A. Leetmaa, and M.J. Harrison, 2006, "Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing", Nature, 441(7089), 73-76.

Vecchi, G.A., and B.J. Soden, 2007, "Increased Tropical Atlantic Wind Shear in Model Projections of Global Warming", Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L08702, doi:10.1029/2006GL028905, 2007.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 2255 - 2205

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46Blog Index

2255. owenowen
2:16 AM GMT on August 26, 2011
First, when we get a cooling trend, idiots with an agenda remove a curve in a graph so it supports their position. Then when they get busted, the term climate change creeps in so they can make their money by jumping on either side of the fence (hello GE). Grrrrreat, now I can digest articles from losers who write the reason we have fewer hurricanes is because of global warming, then when that doesn't work out for them, I can read how the increase in hurricanes is the result of global warming.

Just a thought from little ol me. STFU.
Member Since: July 4, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 50
2254. Vincent4989
10:29 AM GMT on July 18, 2011
BLOG REVIVED
So that's why 2011 is forecast to become an active season.
Member Since: November 13, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 728
2253. hydrus
5:50 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting SevereHurricane:


Correct
I mentioned that this year I would make an estimate on how many storms we might have on may 15. I will probably do better than I did last year with this kind of approach. I predicted 13 named storms last year. Not too good. whine,sniffle, lol
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21704
2252. SevereHurricane
5:22 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting hydrus:
So it will be important to see how far north the African waves are moving off the Continent this year as well as the general position of the ITCZ.


Correct
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
2251. hydrus
5:20 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting SevereHurricane:


It generally only hampers development in area's south of 15N.
So it will be important to see how far north the African waves are moving off the Continent this year as well as the general position of the ITCZ.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21704
2250. SevereHurricane
5:17 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting SevereHurricane:


2005 had an Easterly QBO.
Quoting hydrus:
That is the one thing I found also. That very subject came up on this blog not long ago. someone said that the QBO only affects development in the southern most region of the MDR. So it may have little impact. I don,t think there is enough time left for the QBO to reverse direction either. So hopefully it will put a damper on some of the waves this year, and we will learn even more about how that oscillation effects a potentially busy season.


It generally only hampers development in area's south of 15N.
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
2249. hydrus
5:14 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting StormW:


Easterly QBO
That is the one thing I found also. That very subject came up on this blog not long ago. someone said that the QBO only affects development in the southern most region of the MDR. So it may have little impact. I don,t think there is enough time left for the QBO to reverse direction either. So hopefully it will put a damper on some of the waves this year, and we will learn even more about how that oscillation effects a potentially busy season.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21704
2247. Bordonaro
5:11 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
NEW BLOG EVERYBODY..NEW BLOG****
Member Since: August 25, 2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
2246. SevereHurricane
5:09 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting StormW:


Easterly QBO


The 2005 Hurricane Season had an Easterly QBO.
Member Since: September 7, 2008 Posts: 17 Comments: 1604
2245. Levi32
5:08 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
The only negative thing I can think of right now may be the QBO, but I have yet to come across conclusive evidence that it has a large effect.

I gotta go for a bit.

StormW I'll get back to you when I can.
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26681
2244. alexhurricane1991
5:08 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Storm whats an easterly QBO?
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2243. iluvjess
5:08 PM GMT on April 09, 2010

Not to worry, last time I checked, Tampa's Hurricane Protection Shield Subscription was up to date and is receiving updates.
2241. alexhurricane1991
5:04 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
I just looked at the temprature anomalies in the atlantic basin and omg did the gulf warm up thats very disconcerning living in the tampa area i do not like the gulf will warm so quickly and if it keeps warming it will be normal by mid may and with that we need to be vigilant because we all know to well what a hurricane can do in the gulf.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2240. Levi32
5:02 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting hydrus:
Alright, name one anomaly that does not look to favor hurricane development this year.


I'm on the hunt for one....lol. Some of these things are still based on model forecasts though, as it's still early. We will have to actually observe things such as wind shear and the MJO during May and June to see how those anomalies and others like them are shaping up. Based on what we're seeing now, we know how they should turn out, but some variables don't like to play along all the time.
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26681
2239. hydrus
4:57 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting Levi32:


It is nearly certain we will be entering the La Nina phase of the ENSO during the mid-late summer, but how strong it gets is still pretty fuzzy.
Alright, name one anomaly that does not look to favor hurricane development this year.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21704
2238. Minnemike
4:56 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
oops, that was an answer... this is a modification, please ignore.
Member Since: July 31, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1320
2237. xcool
4:54 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
The TSR (Tropical Storm Risk) April forecast update for Atlantic hurricane activity in 2010 anticipates
an active hurricane season to more certainty than forecast in December 2009. Based on current and
projected climate signals, Atlantic basin and US landfalling tropical cyclone activity are forecast to be
about 60% above the 1950-2009 norm in 2010. There is a high (77%) likelihood that activity will be in
the top one-third of years historically. The forecast spans the period from 1st June to 30th November 2010
and employs data through to the end of March 2010. TSR’s two predictors are the forecast July-
September 2010 trade wind speed over the Caribbean and tropical North Atlantic, and the forecast
August-September 2010 sea surface temperature in the tropical North Atlantic. At present TSR
anticipates both predictors having a moderate enhancing effect on activity.

http://www.tropicalstormrisk.com/


Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
2235. iluvjess
4:50 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
I wonder when we can look forward to nola's forecast for this year? Seems his "Team" is way behind the competition. Or maybe they are just taking a little extra time to evaluate the most up to the minute data. lol
2234. iluvjess
4:48 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting alexhurricane1991:
That was nolaweather iluvjess it was very funny to read his arrogance and his forecasts if you can call it that.


Thats right... I was about to go back and look it up. Funny stuff it was.
2233. alexhurricane1991
4:46 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
That was nolaweather iluvjess it was very funny to read his arrogance and his forecasts if you can call it that.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2232. Levi32
4:44 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting StormW:
Levi,
Did you get my WU email?


I did, just read it a little bit ago. I couldn't resist playing around with it a little bit lol, but I'll reply back soon. I found some things I think you might find interesting.
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26681
2231. alexhurricane1991
4:43 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Oh ok thanks for clearing that up levi.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2230. iluvjess
4:43 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Who was that person last year that kept popping up with the "based on my teams latest research and analysis....our latest forecast... blah blah blah"?
2229. alexhurricane1991
4:42 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Thats true dan sometimes what they say is histarical and you want to hear what they have to say next.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2227. Levi32
4:41 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting alexhurricane1991:
wow thats cool levi so we could be looking at a la nina by the worst part of the season.


It is nearly certain we will be entering the La Nina phase of the ENSO during the mid-late summer, but how strong it gets is still pretty fuzzy.
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26681
2226. PcolaDan
4:38 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Some trolls are just so much fun to egg on though, you just can't help yourself. lol
Member Since: August 22, 2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 6010
2225. alexhurricane1991
4:38 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
wow thats cool levi so we could be looking at a la nina by the worst part of the season? if so that means more hurricanes and the greater chance for these to landfall unfourtunatly.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2224. Levi32
4:35 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting hydrus:
If it turns out we have a La-Nina, Does it Usually take some time for the atmosphere to change over enough to effect the path of the hurricanes?


Sometimes yes, if it's the ocean driving things. However, this year the ENSO is primarily reactive, meaning that the ocean is reacting to what the atmosphere is doing, rather than the other way around. Because of this, there shouldn't really be any lag to the effects of the coming La Nina. You will probably see most of the effects of this reversing El Nino start to take shape already during May, before the season even starts.
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26681
2223. alexhurricane1991
4:34 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
I would consider that a troll minniemike because you are feeding that troll to troll some more just ignore them and move on.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2222. FLWeatherFreak91
4:32 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting Skyepony:


1st it's a big if.. as the ENSO monthly stated yesterday & I've been saying for 6 weeks the ENSO models & what will happen there is a bigger uncertainty than usual..model confidence there is low.. but lets take a look at one of the better dynamical models from NASA.. & this is very much in line with what it had in the pasts months so it hasn't been playing fickle either..

That is screaming mighting severe La Niña for the heart of 'cane season.. That would build a big strong high over FL & the gulf sending the bulk of the worst (Dean, Felix..) through the Caribbean into Central America like 2007..US had 4 landfalls that year..only one was a hurricane. I agree about the active season but find ENSO a little uncertain yet to agree with 7 US landfalls.


This scenario would be more dangerous for the Gulf coast later in the season when troughs start to erode the high. Then we'll have the storm curving to the N and NE in the gulf.

Member Since: December 1, 2006 Posts: 2 Comments: 3631
2221. Minnemike
4:29 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
would a blogger be considered a troll when freaking out about another troll for every post, instead of ignoring them...? just trying to catch up on this long thread (our guest skip town w/ you Jeff?), a little perturbed by incessant fears of a notorious JFV...
we got buttons for problematic entries folks...
and here i am reduced to the very evil!
compliments to the posts about weather :)
Member Since: July 31, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1320
2220. Cazatormentas
4:26 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Interesting studies but, at the same way with the use of AgI to prevent hailstorms, perhaps this increase of windshear will inhibe tropical cyclone development along the RDP but, what about on large scale jet streams in the Northern Hemisphere? I bet for incresing in tropical cyclones out of this region, and tropical transitions of cutoff lows, out of "tropical" waters.
Member Since: October 18, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 149
2219. hydrus
4:21 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting Levi32:


Joe Bastardi did acknowledge that by the way. He's making a forecast based on going into a La Nina but not hitting moderate or strong categories until the fall and winter months. He said just the other day on his video that the tracks could end up farther south than he has them right now if the La Nina comes crashing in real strong like 2007 and 1988.

And for clarification, his forecast is for 7 total landfalls, 5 of them hurricanes, and 2-3 of them major. That's because he's forecasting 16-18 total named storms but 15 of those will make it west of 55W, and therefore be a threat to land areas. It's a big forecast no doubt, but it's not way out there.

If it turns out we have a La-Nina, Does it Usually take some time for the atmosphere to change over enough to effect the path of the hurricanes?
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21704
2218. Levi32
4:20 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting alexhurricane1991:
Hey levi im alexhurricane1991 and i like your in depth look at whats going to make this hurricane season tick so good job man and cant wait for the show to start.


Hey there, welcome to the blogs. It will probably be a busy summer but definitely not exciting to those who live in harm's way. I hope to be tracking many fish this year.
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26681
2217. alexhurricane1991
4:20 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Is anyone here?
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2216. alexhurricane1991
4:12 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Hey levi im alexhurricane1991 and i like your in depth look at whats going to make this hurricane season tick so good job man and cant wait for the show to start.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2215. alexhurricane1991
4:09 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Yeah last year it was hard to read the blog because of the trolls and downcasters but this year it will be the oppisite all the wishcasters and doomcasters will come out so every year whether its a dull season or a active seasons we are always going to get these people just ignore them and carry on talking about what we all love Hurricanes yeah!
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2214. Levi32
4:07 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting Skyepony:


1st it's a big if.. as the ENSO monthly stated yesterday & I've been saying for 6 weeks the ENSO models & what will happen there is a bigger uncertainty than usual..model confidence there is low.. but lets take a look at one of the better dynamical models from NASA.. & this is very much in line with what it had in the pasts months so it hasn't been playing fickle either..

That is screaming mighting severe La Nia for the heart of 'cane season.. That would build a big strong high over FL & the gulf sending the bulk of the worst (Dean, Felix..) through the Caribbean into Central America like 2007..US had 4 landfalls that year..only one was a hurricane. I agree about the active season but find ENSO a little uncertain yet to agree with 7 US landfalls.


Joe Bastardi did acknowledge that by the way. He's making a forecast based on going into a La Nina but not hitting moderate or strong categories until the fall and winter months. He said just the other day on his video that the tracks could end up farther south than he has them right now if the La Nina comes crashing in real strong like 2007 and 1988.

And for clarification, his forecast is for 7 total landfalls, 5 of them hurricanes, and 2-3 of them major. That's because he's forecasting 16-18 total named storms but 15 of those will make it west of 55W, and therefore be a threat to land areas. It's a big forecast no doubt, but it's not way out there.

Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26681
2213. iluvjess
4:06 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Like the sands of an hour glass, so are the days as we count down June 1st.
2212. Patrap
4:03 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
I like going back every day a year here in the archives during this time and see how the banter went pre-season.

Its good fer a nice chuckle as well.
Try it,ya might get a lil insight as well too.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 129088
2211. alexhurricane1991
4:03 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
OH NO! not the trolls everyone run for the hills! LOL!
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2210. PanhandleChuck
4:02 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
How's it going all?

With the early predictions that have been released, I smell them and there will be a larger than normal infestation of them this year...... Yes I'm talking about the dreaded

TROLLS

Be careful out there.
Member Since: May 13, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1414
2209. alexhurricane1991
4:02 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Thats a good observation there skyepony we still dont kn.ow about enso some models have neural conditions some have weak la ninas and some that still have el nino though thats few and far between but theres still discepences about that and we should wait for may to have a general idea of were this hurricane season is going enso wise
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
2208. Floodman
3:59 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Hey, Orca!
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
2207. Floodman
3:58 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Quoting RitaEvac:
Whats the oddds this season could still be a dud? overhype by experts could end up over doing it and just be a average season like last year.


A year can always be a dud, but just like conditions needing to be perfect for a storm to form, they have to be perfect for a season to be a dud as well...
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 9922
2206. Orcasystems
3:58 PM GMT on April 09, 2010


AOI

AOI

AOI

AOI
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
2205. alexhurricane1991
3:56 PM GMT on April 09, 2010
Cool toontown i dont get to snow that often because i live in tampa but when i do see it its awesome so congrats!
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572

Viewing: 2255 - 2205

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Mostly Cloudy
45 °F
Mostly Cloudy